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Hybrid energy systems are widely utilised as they combine different sources of energy to augment for the shortcomings of each power source. Information regarding the operating performance of the system components plays an essential role in establishing the control strategy for the system. The optimum control allows for proper exchange of energy among system components, thereby enhancing the system’s performance at optimum cost. Optimisation models are required for the efficient design of the mix of energy resources. These models can enable efficient management and the distribution of power for reliably satisfying the energy demand. This study presents state-of-the-art assessment of optimisation models for hybrid power systems. As part of research efforts in solving the present energy related problems of developing countries, this study comprehensively reviews the current status and underlying principles of various optimisation modelling technologies. This paper recommends the use hybridised metaheuristic algorithms for establishing the optimal solutions of hybrid energy systems. Accurate mix of meta-heuristic algorithms can enable the developmental framework for ascertaining the true optimal solution of hybrid energy system in reasonable time.


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This paper describes the design and control strategy of a security door system based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. The objective was to provide efficient system monitoring facilities that can secure the entrance to a building. The design utilised a two-factor authentication mechanism as well as a microcontroller programmed in C++ to control the hardware system. An electromagnetic relay was designed to regulate the opening and closing of the door being moved by a synchronous motor. The multiplexers, which consist of integrated circuits, were used for the display of the status of the card user in the liquid crystal display while the alarm system notifies the public of an intruder. The results are presented and discussed.


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The main objective of this study is to identify/determine the techno-economic and environmental merits of the inclusion of wind power to diesel power system for electricity generation in Nigeria. The optimum size of the winddiesel micro-grid was determined by making energy-balance calculations using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software. Analysis was performed for a typical residential area, made up of a population of 15 households, using the long-term (22-years) average wind speed data sets collected from the Nigerian Meteorological agency for Maiduguri (latitude 12.0°N and longitude 13.33°E). Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the annual average wind speed based on the wind map and diesel price to determine the viability at other locations in Nigeria. Simulation results presented are discussed and compared with the conventional approach.


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The paper investigates the accessibility index of cellular mobile networks at Ekpoma. The objective was to determine the performance and quality of service of GSM networks providers in Ekpoma, Nigeria. The assessment was based on the ability of a mobile network to setup and hold calls for a duration of 140 seconds. A total of 34,112 calls, made up of 8,528 intra-networks and 25,584 inter-networks, were initiated at 41 test points for a period of one year (May 2014 to April 2015). The test points selected spread across Ekpoma to account for all possible climatic conditions. The results showed that when network signals were available, steady and within the international acceptable standard of received signal strength level greater than –93dBm, all cellular mobile network operators at Ekpoma offered a good quality of service with an accessibility index greater than 81%. Conversely, the performance of all networks during periods of poor or fluctuating signals and both is unsatisfactory.


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Lack of available diffuse solar radiation data in Nigeria and the variation of commonly used estimation methods with site meteorology called for the need to evaluate models and verify their suitability based on the local environmental conditions before application for the design and development of solar energy systems. This study assesses the performance of six models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation over Nigeria. The models considered utilize clearness index, cloud cover, relative sunshine duration or a combination of these parameters as input, for estimating diffuse solar radiations on a horizontal surface. The performance evaluation of estimation models used data sets for 37 cities with varying meteorology, which spread across the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria, for a period of 22-years. The applicability of considered methods of estimation was determined based on the coefficient of correlation, coefficient of determination, mean bias error, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute bias error (MABE) and relative percentage error (RPE). This study finds that the multivariable regression relationship, which uses clearness index and cloud cover as input parameters, performs best in the estimation of diffuse solar radiations on a horizontal surface for Nigeria. It gives the lowest range of error terms, with RMSE (0.0778–0.1981 MJ/m2), MABE (0.0663–0.1623 MJ/m2) and monthly RPE of ± 6%.


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This study presents the optimum size of a hybrid energy system for reliable operation of automated teller machines (ATMs). The aim is to identify a configuration among a set of power generation options that can reliably satisfy the electrical power consumption requirements of a remote load at the lowest energy cost, taking into consideration the availability and dynamic nature of energy sources. Three primary energy sources (solar, wind and diesel) are considered. The optimum design configuration is determined by making energy balance calculations based on HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable) software. Simulations are carried out for a one-year period, using long-term meteorological data and load profile of a typical ATM installation for Ekpoma, located (latitude 6.75oN, longitude 6.13oE) in the southern part of Nigeria. Simulation results show that the optimum design configurations consist of 5 kW wind turbine generator, 12 kW photovoltaic arrays and 81 kWh battery bank for study location. A more reliable and less expensive operations of ATMs would not only improve the quality of banking services, but will also reduce emissions of CO2 and other harmful gasses from ATM installation sites in Nigeria by approximately 95.7% thereby making the environment much more friendly and safe.


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Abstract
 
The objective of this study was to investigate iron status of school children aged 7-12 years in some rural communities in Nigeria as well as identify factors associated with anemia in the children. A total of 249 school children, 120 males and 129 females aged between 7-12 years were used in the study. Haemomoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (PCV) and serum ferritin were used to determine anaemia and iron status in 208 children. The subjects were also screened for malaria parasites and worm infection to determine their impact on anaemia. C-reactive protein (CRP) was used as an indicator of inflammation or infection. Socioeconomic, anthropometric and body composition information were collected from the children, while dietary iron intake was determined using a combination of 24 hour dietary recall, food frequency questionnaire and weighed inventory technique. The values obtained for energy and nutrient intakes were compared with RDA recommendations. Anaemia was defined as Hb < 11.0mg/dl and iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin levels below 12ug/dl. Correlation coefficient was used to evaluate association between anaemia and nutritional as well as health factors. The results showed that the prevalence of anaemia was 82.6%, while iron deficiency was 77.8%. The average daily iron intake was 30% below the recommended allowance. There was a high prevalence of inflammatory disorders as indicated by CRP. Malaria parasite and worm infestations were high in the children (93.2% and 41.8%, respectively). Anaemia was significantly associated with helminth infestation, malaria parasite and CRP. The children had a mean weight and height below the recommended standards. Of all the children in the study (n=249), 77% were both stunted and underweight while 56% were wasted. The body composition values of normal children (body fat, triceps, subscapula skinfold thicknesses and abdominal circumference) were significantly higher than those of the malnourished children (p<0.05). The percentage of children having low BMI (<14.59) was 23.69%.The need for malaria and helminth control in these communities is recommended.

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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Vitamin A supplementation has been carried out in Nigeria for over the past twelve years. It is therefore necessary to assess the progress made in vitamin A supplementation and the challenges experienced. Methods: Reports from various monitors and supervisors were analysed from all over the country. The NDHS (1999, 2003, and 2008) were used as secondary sources of information. Results: Under-five mortality rate in Nigeria was 200/1000 live birth in 1999 (NDHS 1999) and this informed the need to include vitamin A supplementation as a plus in the national immunization days (NIDs). The NID programme was later change to national immunization plus days (NIPDs) thus regarding vitamin A as a plus in the program. NIPDs were essentially implemented as a WHO led program and this led to resistance by the WHO-supported health workers to accommodate input from UNICEF that brought in the VACs as a component of the NIPDs. There was mutual suspicion between WHO assisted health workers and nutrition professionals who saw themselves as the owner of VACs and were remunerated by UNICEF. There were also disparity in the remuneration between health workers supported by WHO and those supported by UNICEF. Some health workers could not administer VACs correctly due to poor training. In some cases political considerations informed the recruitment of adhoc staff who had no knowledge of the program and could not administer both the vaccines and VACS. Data management was poorly carried out and some WHO staff refused to record the data on vitamin A. Poor micro-plans and supply of enough quantities of VACs, scissors, wipes and tally sheets were also observed. Conclusion: Despite these challenges, vitamin A coverage for under-five children had risen from initial 27% in 1999 to 75% in 2011. This has also positively affected the under-five mortality by reducing it to 157/1000 live birth (NDHS, 2008).

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Abstract

The Gambia was a recipient of the World Bank’s World Links for Development (WorLD) pilot programme (1997-2001) which is part of the bank’s educational projects in developing countries which focused on the promotion of new and better ways of achieving effective learning through the use of technology. This study investigated whether concerns of the WorLD Programme teachers in The Gambia, regarding the noneffective utilisation of ICT in education in achieving professional teacher development, prevailed in other WorLD schools throughout Africa. The framework was to conduct a focus study interview with project teachers, administer questionnaires to determine teachers’ concerns regarding the WorLD Programme and other factors contributing to the success or failure of the Programme in their schools. An evaluative research method was used to investigate benchmarks developed as possible indicators to achieve project objectives. The study found out that despite the key role of ICT in improving the quality and delivery of education globally, imperatives to achieving educational outcomes, such as access to computers and Internet networking, training of educators and a supportive working environment were still unavailable to education role players in The Gambia. The study revealed that though educators in WorLD schools have been equipped with new skills and modern insights into education. However, the project failed to achieve a great proportion of its outcomes and impact. It was strongly recommended that the issues that have impeded achieving the objectives of the WorLD project be addressed through a national ICT education policy to achieve future outcomes and impact.


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             ABSTRACT
 
The Nigeria economy requires Mathematics that can effectively put science and technology in the for-front of nation building. This paper reviewed the role of Mathematics in Science and Technology and the nature of Mathematics that would facilitate the realization of a dynamic economy. The challenges of Mathematics education in the 21st century were highlighted to include: i. Incorporating new developments in Science and Technology into Mathematics, ii. Acceleration of programs for the continued professional development of teachers; and iii. Need for Mathematics educators to find new assessment instruments that reflect the new expectation of mathematics education.

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Abstract
 
It is shown that an Osborn loop of order n has n/2 generators. Given the determining permutations, the representation Π is generated by R(2) ◦ R(2 + i) = R(3 + i)∀i = 1, 3, 5, ..., n − 3. The representation of Osborn loops of order 16 is presented and it is used as an example to verify the results. It is also shown that the order of every element of the representation Π divides the order of the loop, hence, Osborn loops of order 16 are langrangelike.




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ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to employ Green Architecture as a panacea to the environmental effects of Architectural development in Nigeria. There are a lot of environmental effects posed by the built environment, this may have arose as a result of Architectural development channeled towards a radical development of an artificial environment. Architectural development will be catastrophic without setting a balance between the natural environment and built or artificial environment. As much as Architectural d3evelopment is essential to foster progress so also due consideration must be given to the Adaptation and Sustenance of the built environment. Green Architecture which was carved out from post-modernism fulfills best practices in environment development. This is true because Green Architecture is the most tangible reflection of a profound change in ecological patterns that has occurred over the last one hundred years, but the most common problem in Architectural development are the environmental effects engulfed in its adaptability and sustainability, most especially in the tropical regions like Nigeria considering the inadequacy of Electricity, therefore, the promotion of adaptability and sustainability in Architectural practice is of great importance which is the central aim of this study. The researcher’s primary source or method of data collection was based on Analytic studies using descriptive method of data analysis to evaluate the draw backs of existing Architectural practice. Studies has shown that most of these practice failed to anchor its developmental strives to adaptability and sustainability most especially in developing countries due to so many deficiencies. The Natural elements of the environment has not been fully harnessed in maintaining ecological balance in the environment. To accomplish this development, Architectural development must benefit from an integrated design approach that focuses on meeting a list of objectives through a tropical design that offers owners and users an increased working satisfaction and productivity, improved health, greater flexibility, enhanced energy and environmental performance at little or no cost.


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Abstract
The uncontrollable increase in human activities from population, ecology, the built environment and waste disposal system are all threats to the climate. It is no news that our world is continuously undergoing changes in all ramifications, this changes most of the time are detrimental to our climate. According to current findings, indoor and outdoor activities like heating, burning, cooking, cooling and other physical activities release intensive energy emissions that can disrupt the climate of a place. Our day to day activities has change the world we live in and therefore has altered the climate. This paper therefore aims at investigating the built environment as it relates to physical climate of the environment. Information were gathered from case studies, and useful literature materials such as books, magazines, journals and the internet was also very instrumental and was consulted in the course of the study in descriptive method of analysis based research. In addition questionnaires were distributed to professionals of the building industrial in Asaba to ascertain their level of awareness of climate change. The entire world is at risk, the continents are in a continues drift (continental drift), the seasons are no longer consistent, there is an uncontrolled rise of sea levels leading to flood and tsunami, the weather is harsh and the days are unpredictable, All of these points to climate change of the built environment. Experts of the built environment need to come up with new innovation for the survival of the environment and its inhabitance. It is no news that the world in the year 3000 will be allot different from the one we live in now, sustainable ideas and design strategies are profound ways to escape the plague that is before the earth. Findings from data collected and study indicates that 71% of people still use incandescent bulbs, 92% use petrol generators and another 28% use candles and other crude source for power generation. Built up environment without the integration of the ecosystem will amount to a failed act of procreation. The study recommends the design and building of a more ecologically balanced and sustainable environment that is friendly to the natural environment and could adapt to the change in climate.


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The paper explores the tripartite relationship between law, food security and national development with a view to proffering measures and strategies aimed at guaranteeing food security in Nigeria through the instrumentality of the law. The paper posits that the concept of 'food security' and 'national development' are inextricably linked for a holistic and integral development framework in any country, especially in a developing nation as Nigeria. The bane of the problem of food insecurity in Nigeria among other factors. include general lack of coherence, the issue of programme and policy continuity. corruption, poor commitment to implementation of agricultural policies, programmes and laws, focus on monolithic oil economy, fast growing population, climate change and other issues relating to institutional and sectoral policies. The paper concludes that through innovation, appropriate measures and pro-activeness on the part of government, Nigeria can achieve sustainable agriculture and food security that will ultimately guarantee and promote human capital and national development.

 

 

 

 

 


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This paper examines the role of the Nigeria Police Force in the implementation of government policies on combating corruption, by focusing on constitutional provisions, statutes and cases, in order to assess whether the effort of the Police Force has been complementary or counterproductive in the fight against corruption. The paper identifies that one of the major factors militating against the effectiveness of the Police Force fight against corruption is lack of continuity of previous government's policies on corruption. It, however, affirms that owing to a number of other factors, which include lack of diligent prosecution of corrupt public officers arising from shoddy Police investigations, general ineptitude and the executive's influences on the Police as well as the constitutional and statutory provisions, which hamper their performance of duties, the Nigeria Police Force cannot effectively contribute to the success of government policies against corruption The paper recommends. among others. that there should be a review of constitutional and statutory provisions regulating the performance of the Police Force and other security agencies in order to reduce or eliminate conflict of duties. Secondly, the Police Act should be made to emphasize professionalism and independence. Furthermore, the Police Service Commission (PSC) should ensure the new Code of Conduct is applied to all cadres of the Force up to the Inspector General of Police. Finally, for better efficiency and to avoid corruption from civil society, enhanced welfare package should be availed the Police Force.

 


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