oer | Ambrose Alli University

## Journals

ABSTRACT

This research work is a pair review into the conceptual frame work and innovation into Pen-style Personal Network Gadget Package (P-ISM) as inevitable tool to easy, fast and convenient access to the internet. Computing activities have increased the degree of people using personal computers (PCs), complicated packages and all form of social media applications (Apps.) have emerged within this short period. Meeting these trends (day to day activities) in more convenient form has led to the modern sophisticated garget such as Pen-Style Network Gadget Package (P-ISM) prototype. The growth in internet affects our lives in much better way than we know and its sustainability made 5 pen technology innovations a salt after.

ABSTRACT

Since it is not easy for network administrators to monitor nodes in a network environment manually due to the physical movement from one node to another; and it is even worst with the trend of the increase in nodes in a network environment due to Web based Service Oriented Applications (SOA) that runs on the networks. Monitoring of nodes in terms of detecting faulty network cables, detecting of nodes that is not supposed to be part of a particular network, and even the shutting down of hundreds of nodes has become a nightmare for most network administrators. The static software solutions and dynamic single task software for network management developed has not really helped matters on the network administrators end. These worries gave birth to this research work, of designing a multiagent based system to handle different task for the sole benefit of the network administrator and not the network environment. The system is effective and efficient, and it is recommended for practical usage.

ABSTRACT

Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures that links between resources and patient outcomes are fundamental issues for healthcare management today. This paper describes the design of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC) / Management in Health Care Industries in Nigeria as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. The design methodology contains interrelated parts, “Healthcare Process Analysis and Cost Control Analysis”. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, consultation, investigations, research, and so on, were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services rendered. Results reveals that the implementation of the ABC Model for Healthcare Management System (HMS) when fully developed will open ways for new possibilities which includes, process and activity analysis, simulation, price calculations/hospital control costs, improved quality and efficiency of the care they provide to patients and management of their resources better.

Abstract

This paper aims to present a multi-agent based system for monitoring nodes in network environment. The models developed for the proposed system defines certain deliberative agents that interact together in order to achieve the objectives and requirements of the multi-agent organization, and integration of fault services, security services and configuration services in a single solution platform. The developed model tends to resolve certain challenges like port conflict, hard disk space, memory consumption, and most especially interoperability issue faced by network administrators with respect to installing more than one network monitoring application to monitor and manage a network environment. The proposed multi-agent based network monitor was developed using Core Java, HTML, Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), JavaScript, JQuery, and MySQL. The developed system was rated highest amongst five different off-the-shelve network based application after system evaluation was conducted.The proposed system is recommended for usage in any local area network.

Abstract

Every month business ventures pay certain amount of money as tax to the government agency in-charge of collecting tax as internally generated revenue. This tax amount ought to be a certain percentage of their earnings or profit, but the agency in-charge has no structured means of apportioning or predicting the amount of money to levy the tax payers thereby over-estimating or under-estimating the tax amount charged. This scenario has posed serious financial fraud issues of cash suppression and diversion in the current tax collection system. For the purpose of this research work, ID3 classification technique based on decision tree has been used to properly classify tax payers into tears in order to monitor, control and reduce fraudulent tax activities in the present tax collection system. The result of this research work will assist the state government to control tax fraud of different kinds,
and to properly predict the expected tax income to improve on the developmental projects of the state.

ABSTRACT

Employees’ savings and loan scheme is a voluntary contributory savings scheme from employees’ salaries established by employees in most universities in Nigeria to assist themselves whenever the need arises. Employees’ are faced with various operational and administrative challenges from their various loan schemes. The major challenge is the delay in service delivery due to their manual workflow system. In this research work, interview and observations techniques were used to gather facts. The software architecture of the automated system was designed, system modeled using use case and sequenced diagrams to show how employees’ can interact with the automated system and the system was also developed using Hypertext PreProcessor (PHP), JavaScript, Hypertext Markup Language and MySQL to handle all the system and operational processes. The web based application developed captured the employees’ personal biodata and monthly contributory savings through different interfaces developed. The employees’ interacted with the system from the comfort of their offices and homes via Internet connectivity. The application also perform functions like online application for loan facilities, checking of total contributions, tracking of loan application status and other services rendered by the savings and loan scheme. We achieved our research objective in the design and development of the web based automated workflow system. The system was tested to be effective and efficient in terms of storage, retrieval of information, security of records, and general operations. The application is recommended for usage in Nigerian universities.

Abstract

This paper examines challenges faced by network administrators with respect to detecting and identifying faulty network components like cables or nodes in a computer network environment. Several research works on techniques used in building fault detection and identification mechanisms for local area networks reviewed. Dependency matrix was used in designing and building the active probing station internal mechanism for the fault detection and identification. The proposed system was tested in a nonproduction computer network, and the test results revealed that the proposed system is able to detect and identify faulty
node/link is 0.22 seconds based on the processor speed and memory capacity. The proposed system is recommended for usage in any local area network.

ABSTRACT

In order to meet the demands of clients’ changing requirements in fashion-designed wears and styles, time / cost of visiting fashion design homes and unnecessary delay in end to end service delivery system in the fashion design industry a computer assisted production framework for mass customization and ordering system is designed. The designed framework can enable the automation of fabric and style selection, personalized measurement of dresses and ordering methods. For the manufacturers, the efficiency of the supply chain that this process engenders will reduces human interaction errors and exertion, and increases production quantum. For the customers, it brings about better fitness with faster delivery system which can stimulate the desire for a variety of clothing outfits, and provide customers’ satisfaction, thereby contributing technically to the dynamic interface of computer application and cloth-making.

Abstract

Edo State Inland Revenue Services is overwhelmed with gigabyte of disk capacity containing data about tax payers’ in the state. The data stored on the database increases in size at an alarming rate. This has resulted in a data rich but information poor situation where there is a widening gap between the explosive growth of data and its types, and the ability to analyze and interpret it effectively; hence the need for a new generation of automated and intelligent tools and techniques known as investigative data mining, to look for patterns in data. These patterns can lead to new insights, competitive advantages for business, and tangible benefits for the State Revenue services. This research work focuses on designing effective fraud detection and deterring architecture using investigative data mining technique. The proposed system architecture is designed to reason using Artificial Neural Network and Machine learning algorithm in order to detect and deter fraudulent activities. We recommend that the architectural framework be developed using Object Oriented Programming and Agent Oriented Programming Languages.

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the framework for developing and implementing an automated hospital management system (AHMS) on an Intranet. After reviewing the various existing systems of records management in hospital today which leads to misplacement of drugs details, late release of reports and insecurity of records and other electronic health care versions. This framework handles the information flow process between a waiting patient and the doctor in-charge. Unified Modeling Language (UML), System Context Diagram (Level 0 DFD), Level 1 & 2 Data flow diagram were used in modeling the system.

Abstract

These days network security applications can be found everywhere due to the increasing size and number of Local Area Networks (LAN), and Internet connections. This paper critically examined several research works on techniques used in building Intrusion
Detection System (IDS). We considered the Fuzzy ART technique for designing and building our proposed Anomaly Node Intrusion Detection System based on its strengths. The proposed system was tested in a production computer network, and the test results
revealed that the proposed system is able to detect anomaly intrusion of nodes effectively. The system was evaluated for its effectiveness and efficiency. The evaluation results revealed the detection rate to be 99.98%, detection time to be 0.82 seconds and the false alarm rates (false positive and false negative to be 0.01%). The proposed system is highly recommended for usage in any local area network.

Abstract

Network monitoring applications are becoming critical systemsand increasingly complex to manage. To help manage this complexity, the application needs to be modeled properly in order to understand its challenges and possible solutions to adopt. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard language for modeling software intensive systems like network monitor applications. In this paper, we used the use-case, sequence, and state chart diagrams to model our design user interface interactions, internal mechanisms behavior and application state. UML is recommended for software architects, application developers and
researchers in the field of software engineering for vital technical documentations.

Abstract

The unstructured method of apportioning tax levies to tax payers of various businesses in Edo state has led to over-estimating
or under-estimating the tax amount charged; thereby causing the rampant fraudulent activity of cash suppression and diversion in the tax collection system. This scenario motivated the research interest in order to control and secure fraud in Edo state tax collection system. The UML interaction approach was used to critically model the security and control, alongside software agent
designed to secure and control tax fraud.

ABSTRACT

This paper critically examined nine different software models for modeling / developing multi-agent based systems. The study revealed that the different models examined have their various advantages / disadvantages and uniqueness in terms of practical development/deployment of the multi-agent based information system in question. The agentology model is one methodology that can be easily adopted or adapted for the development of any multi-agent based software prototype because it was inspired by the
best practices and good ideas contained in other agent oriented methodologies like CoMoMas, MASE, GAIA, Prometheus, HIM, MASim and Tropos.

ABSTRACT

Evolutionary algorithms have been proven to handle multi objective problems, and one of such finest algorithms is the Differential Evolution Algorithm. In the last five years, Differential Evolution (DE) has been used to solve multi objective optimization problems
(MOOPs). Several extensions of DE for multi-objective optimization have already been proposed. Older approaches convert a MOOP to a single-objective problem and use DE to solve the single objective problem, whereas more recent and advanced approaches mainly use the concept of Pareto-dominance. As the number of objectives increases to four or more it is difficult finding the dominated solution as a result there exist conflicts among the objectives. In this research work, a method of controlling the dominance area of solutions using the Generalized Differential Evolution 3 (GDE3) Algorithm is proposed. Controlling the
dominance area means either the expansion or contraction of the dominance area solutions using a user-defined parameter S. Deb-Thiele-Laumanns-Zitzler (DTLZ) test problems were used to benchmark the performance of the proposed DE algorithm.

Abstract

The manual or paper-based hospital information system used by hospitals / health centers for storing information about their inpatient and out-patient details, staff records, doctors and nurses on duty, diagnostic results, clinical trials, dispensing of drugs, and so on, has created an inefficiency and poor health service delivery in health sector. This paper examines the need for the use automated hospital information system in order to improve the efficiency and quality of health service delivery for hospitals/health centers in Esan-West L.G.A, Edo State. Observations, oral interviews and questionnaire administration were used to gather data. The study has shown that all the hospitals/health centers in the local government area use paper-based information system for their storage, retrieval, making decisions, and so on about their in-patients/out-patients profile/health history and staff records. The study also revealed that the current paperbased information system used by most hospitals and health centers in the Local Government Area, shows a lot of weaknesses in its internal operations, and therefore acknowledges the need for an Automated Hospital Information System (AHIS) because of its numerous benefits in order to improve the efficiency and quality of health service delivery of the hospitals and health centers. Recommendations were given that both
government and private owned health facilities i.e. hospitals and health centers should be motivated by the government to see the need to convert their operations to an AHIS, the change to the AHIS should follow the level of priority and government policy makers should be made to enact a policy to ensure that the system conversion is achieved.

Abstract

This study examines the object oriented programming (OOP) and its calculated measures in programming interactivity in Nigeria. It focused on the existing programming languages used by programmers and examines the need for integrating programming interactivity with OOP. A survey was conducted to measure interactivity amongst professionals using certain parameters like flexibility, interactivity, speed, interoperability, scalability, dynamism, and solving real life problems. Data was gathered using questionnaire, and analysis was carried out using frequency, percentage ratio, and mean in arriving at a more proactive stand.
The results revealed that the some of the parameters used are highly in support of the programming interactivity with OOP.

Abstract

This paper addresses network computing that seeks to utilize the aggregate resources of many networked computers that can be installed in heterogeneous environment to solve problems of resource allocation, and so on. In doing this, it has to combine the performance from an inexpensive wired local area network (LAN) and wireless local area networks (WLAN) using different operating system, protocols and topologies due to the drawbacks of wired LAN not supporting mobility, quality of services (QoS) in security, and the usage of too many cables. The exchange of data from Wired LAN to Wireless LAN and vice versa is also another main issue to be addressed. The interoperability between the IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11 is done at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Network devices like the Switch, Wireless Access Point (WAP), Network Interface Card (NIC) are responsible for this action. Cisco® packet tracer simulation software was used in simulating the IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11 performances in a heterogeneous network environment. The simulation result shows the time-to-live in a local area network to be 128ms while that of the internetwork to be 125ms or less. This makes the LAN data transfer faster than the WLAN, and the information exchange
interoperable. This type of network environment is recommended for university campuses and government sectors / ICT agencies.

ABSTRACT

The increasing nature of construction or building project and the continuous nature of fraudulent activities being executed by the contractors on site has led project engineers / managers the quest for software solutions for monitoring and managing project activities from start to finish. The software solutions for managing construction projects like the Microsoft projects, Project commander, Procore, Co-Construct, etc which can only solve problems of project planning and activities scheduling but cannot handle preplanning processes like workflow activities between the stakeholders and also cannot handle fraud detection or control in on-going projects. This research work proposed a model and developed a web based software solution based on the proposed architectural model to fill in the gap. The Rule-based forward chaining techniques was used to realize the fraud detection and control objective. Use-case diagram was used to model the application behavior. HTML, JavaScript, Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), jQuery and MySQL implementation tools were used to develop the software prototype. The proposed system was tested; results revealed that the system is able to achieve its objectives effectively.

Abstract

This paper addresses the daily challenges encountered by employees as it relates to their voluntary contributory welfare scheme in most established institutions, establishments or organizations in Nigeria. We critically examined the challenges of joining as member, amount to save, dividends sharing, assets and liabilities, and also the loan scheme using Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria as our study center. A Web Based Automated Workflow System for Employees Welfare and Loan Scheme was developed, which captured the employees’ monthly contributory savings, and other parameters through an interface. Employees’ can interact with the system from the comfort of their homes and from anywhere in the world via Internet connectivity. The application is web based and enables functions like online application for loan facilities, checking of total contributions, tracking of loan application status and other services rendered by the respective welfare scheme. The Web Based Automated Workflow System was developed based on light-weight methodology. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), Javascript, Dreamweaver and MySQL were used to realize the interface and Web Based solutions for the Automated Workflow System for Employees Welfare and Loan Scheme. However, the security built into the scheme was not discussed in this paper.

ABSTRACT

Most Universities in Nigeria today are faced with decision based challenges as per precise and pre-knowledge based information on employees’ recruitment / retirement and proper appraisal exercise. These have resulted to improper appraising of employees due to favoritism, or employees staying and collecting salaries more than necessary. This Developed Employees Decision Support System application (EDSS) is an interactive web-based application intended to assist decision makers in the University environment identify and solve employees’ recruitment and retirement related problems, complete decision process tasks, and make proper decisions. The web based application was developed using PHP, JavaScript, HTML and MySQL. Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria was used as our test bed environment. The developed system was used to automate staff records; classification, evaluation and appraisal were also executed effectively and efficiently using the system. The Developed system is recommended for Universities in Nigeria and other developing countries.

Abstract

The proliferation of computational capabilities of location aware technology has made them viable medium for carrying out a wide range of activities, involving information exchange. One area where location aware technology is gaining great usefulness in society is electoral crime detection, reporting and combating. Looking at the just concluded election in Nigeria, one major problem hindering electoral crime detection and reporting is lack of efficient communication platform between the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), police, various security personnel and the general public. The general public, Police and the INEC lack a common platform for exchanging real time information about criminal activities, electoral crime suspects and those under investigation for various crimes. Lack of readily accessible information of electoral crime trends in major towns and cities is also a key setback to electoral security needs. In this research paper, a location aware service infrastructure for detecting, reporting and tracking down electoral criminal perpetrators is proposed. This is based on the client-server architecture; allowing users (the general public) to exchange various categories of electoral crime/criminal related information with INEC in real time is designed. The system is recommended for the local, state and federal government authorities in Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

A portable class of integrators whose numerator and denominator coefficient are bionomial in form is derived. The derivation is based on a known stability function of the arbitrary [L,M] rational integrator.

#### Abstract

Transportation problem is one of the major areas of application of linear programming. In this paper, we discussed the concept of transportation system and the method of solving transportation problems. We developed a model for the transportation system in Ambrose Alli University (AAU), Ekpoma though private but provides an optimal transportation framework for decision making in the University transportation division. In developing the software, we used Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. The optimal solution arrived at showed that the management can operate at a minimum cost if they utilize the routes as presented in the study: Main campus to Alli Square conveying an average of 90 passengers per day, Main campus to Market Square with an average of 150 passengers, Basic Medical Sciences to Alli Square with an average of 15 passengers, Basic Medical Sciences to Mousco Junction with an average of 150 passengers and Basic Medical Sciences to Opoji Junction with an average of 85 passengers. Consequently, the cost of transportation on these routes are N30, N30, N20, N20, and N30 respectively per journey. An online application was also developed using North-West Corner (NWC) rule to automate the analysis of the System.

#### Abstract

Teaching and learning are constantly being migrated to several ubiquitous platforms. The World Wide Web has therefore become an indispensable tool in the administration of pedagogy. This development has led to accelerated availability of educational resources and the promotion of collaboration across different research and educational institutions. An important component of this innovative trend is the adoption of web-based technology driven assessment of students. It is becoming commonplace to see institutions across the educational strata adopt computer-based tests and assessment to admit or screen students for entrance into Nigerian institutions. We propose the use of computer-based system as a method for screening students after passing the standard written University Matriculation Examination (UME). A prototype scalable software system was developed using PHP technology, AJAX, and MySQL, as a database. Life data were gathered from the last UME and PUME, examination event to test the system. Feedbacks from the experiment showed very promising results.

ABSTRACT

Significance of ICTs for sustainable development was examined arising from the fact that it has been put into the mainstream of development in Nigeria. It is a known fact that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an indispensible part of the contemporary World, therefore its revolutionary potentials cannot be over - estimated. In recent years, developing Countries like Nigeria and International development communities have started taking concrete actions to incorporate Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) into their economic policies and development goals. In this paper qualitative research method was used. Documented materials, reports, journals, newspapers etc. and personal observations were an essential part of the instruments for data gathering. Research questionnaires were structured to elicit the opinion of some respondents and ascertain their level of awareness of the impact of ICTs and their responses were found to be in consonance with the findings. From the results obtained, it is obvious that ICTs are essential tools for sustainable socio-economic development in different key areas such as Education, Business and Commerce, Health, Governance etc.

Abstract
Interest involves the review of information technology in engineering for sustainable development. This takes a look at the relevance of information technology in Engineering with reference to the several form of information exchange between two or more computers through any of the several methods of interconnections. In modern global economy like Nigeria, I.T are intensively utilized for electronic transactional processing and in supporting various fields like banking, governance, engineering, health, education research fields and education in accomplishing their global and economic task across the nation. The emergence of the global information infrastructure presents extra opportunities challenges for the country. The use of mobile phone in the banking industry, its economic implications, and in general a systematic look into the various forms of mobile banking with emphasis on the security measures that makes the whole process safe for adoption will be outlined with reference to the technology being discussed.
Information technology (IT) has greatly contributed to the development of a new type of entrepreneurship based on creativity, the ability to network, openness to virtual environments and intangible assets, high level of agility immediate responsiveness and the continues accumulation of new knowledge. This makes it imperative for higher and broader skills and competence, through continuous learning, the updating and enlargement of skills. In the long run, there will be improvement for competitiveness, productivity and job creation which are measure of sustainable development.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to provide information on anthropometry, body composition and energy intake of adolescents South Eastern Nigeria. The participants were 190 apparently healthy adolescent boys and girls aged 15-18 years with equal sex distribution. Participants were subjected to anthropometric measurements viz: height, weight, arm circumference and skinfold thickness. Energy intake was determined from individual weighed inventory for three consecutive days including a week-end day; part of the food sample was subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results, all measurements except BMI and arm circumference had significant differences (p<0.05). Approximately 50% girls and well over 70% boys failed to meet the recommended weight and height standards. Over 20% of the adolescents were thin (BMI<18.5kg/m<sup>2</sup>). The prevalence of overweight indicated that about 4% of boys and 2% of girls were at risk of becoming overweight. Similarly the prevalence of stunting was found to be 67.3% and 57.8% for boys and girls, respectively. In addition, body fat percent was significantly higher in girls (p<0.05). The mean intakes for fat, carbohydrate and energy was significantly higher in males compared to females (p<0.05). This research provides information concerning anthropometry, body composition and energy intake of adolescents, South East Nigeria. The result shows that there was under nutrition among the adolescents though the extent was higher among adolescent boys than girls, body composition of the adolescents was equally low. Also protein intake was grossly inadequate in both sexes. Therefore there is a need for improvement in the nutritional status among these adolescents.

## Abstract

Physicochemical and nutrient evaluations of African bush mango seeds and pulp were conducted. The seeds contained 3.36%, 7.70%, 65.46%, 2.26%, 10.23% and 10.93% of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash, crude fiber and carbohydrate, respectively. The pulp contained 80.0%, 1.09% , 1.06%, 0.8%, 0.4% 10.7% of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash, crude fiber and carbohydrate, respectively. The physicochemical analysis of the pulp showed that it contained 0.112 cm3 titratable acidity, 0.21% water soluble ash, 459.7 mg/100 ml reducing sugars, 49.1% non-reducing sugars, 10.0 (Brix °) soluble solids, 1.3355 refractive index, 10.0% total solids, 1.2 × 103 NSM−2 viscosity and 1.012 specific gravity. Ascorbic acid and calcium contents were 66.7 mg/100 ml and 262.5 mg/100 g, respectively. The pulp was slightly acidic (pH 5.8) which indicates that it may not be easily spoiled by micro-organisms.

## Abstract

Proximate composition and physicochemical analyses were carried out onthe seed, pulp and extracted oil of sour sop (Annona muricata). Theresults showed that the seed contained 8.5% moisture, 2.4% crudeprotein, 13.6% ash, 8.0% crude fiber, 20.5% fat and 47.0%carbohydrate. The seed also contained 0.2% water soluble ash, 0.79%titratable acidity and 17.0 mg calcium/100 g. The pulp was found tocontain 81% moisture, 3.43% titratable acidity and 24.5%non-reducing sugar. Selected physicochemical characteristics includedrefractive indices of 1.335 for the seed and 1.356 for the pulp, specificgravities of 1.250 for the seed and 1.023 for the pulp, pH values of 8.34for the seed and 4.56 for the pulp, and soluble solids contents of1.5 °Brix for the seed and 15 °Brix for the pulp. Theextracted oil (20.5% yield) had a 60.43% unsaponifiable value,23.54 KOH/g acid value, 100.98 K0H/g saponification value, 1.1 K0H/gperoxide value, 1.464 refractive index, 5.77 pH, 69.5 °Brix soslublesolids and 0.2900 specific gravity.

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the blood glucose response and glycemic index of food for diabetics and non-diabetics. The subjects comprised of 10 diabetics and 7 non-diabetics. The results of the physical characteristics showed that the diabetic subjects were on the average older (age bracket between 51 and 70years) than the non-diabetics (18 and 23years). The Body mass index (BMI) values indicated that over 90% of the diabetics were obese while the non-diabetics were on the average normal. Results also showed that the blood glucose response of the diabetics were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the non- diabetics. When fed on the test diets (“okpa” and “moin–moin”), the blood glucose response was significantly reduced when compared to bread diet for both diabetics and non-diabetics. The results further indicated that the blood glucose response was better with “okpa” than with “moin–moin”, suggesting that “okpa” is a better diet for diabetic patients. The glycemic index values for “okpa” and “moin–moin” were 78 and 38 respectively for the non-diabetics while the values were 59 and 66 respectively, for the diabetics indicating that “okpa” is a better diet for the diabetics.

#### Abstract

This study examined the nutrient composition and sensory properties of fruit juice produced from fruits of Pitanga cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.). Ripe Pitanga cherry fruits were harvested from the premises of the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria and used for the study. The fruits were sorted and washed thoroughly. The seeds were removed manually and the pulp was blended in a high speed Kenwood kitchen blender with little water (pulp: water; 4:1) for 10 minutes. The mixture was screened through a clean double folded cheese cloth into a beaker. The fruit juice was boiled in hot water for 15 minutes and poured into sterilized bottles for nutrient composition and sensory evaluation. Standard assay methods were used to analyze the nutrient content of the Pitanga cherry juice (PCJ). Standard black currant fruit drink (BCD) was bought from the market and used as control. A 9-point hedonic scale was adopted to evaluate the sensory properties of the two samples. Both samples had low levels of some of the proximate components but PCJ had higher fat (0.54%), fibre (0.553%) and ash (1.003%) contents. Total sugar for PCJ was 8.76% and BCD (13.72%). Energy value was 54.83 kcal for PCJ and 48.80 kcal for BCD. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in all the proximate and total sugar composition of the PCJ and the BCD except for carbohydrate where there was no difference (P>0.05).The Pitanga cherry juice contained significant quantities of potassium (101.26 mg),  magnesium (15.52 mg), phosphorus (11.26 mg), calcium (10.75 mg), sodium (10.35 mg) and zinc (3.74 mg). However, the iron content was low (0.27 mg). The mineral content of PCJ was higher (p<0.05) than that of BCD except for magnesium and sodium. The cherry juice was moderately liked for all the sensory attributes of colour, taste, flavour and general acceptability. Instead of allowing the fruit to waste during peak periods, it could be processed into juice with appreciable nutritive value and acceptable sensory properties.

#### Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate iron status of school children aged 7-12 years in some rural communities in Nigeria as well as identify factors associated with anemia in the children. A total of 249 school children, 120 males and 129 females aged between 7-12 years were used in the study. Haemomoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (PCV) and serum ferritin were used to determine anaemia and iron status in 208 children. The subjects were also screened for malaria parasites and worm infection to determine their impact on anaemia. C-reactive protein (CRP) was used as an indicator of inflammation or infection. Socioeconomic, anthropometric and body composition information were collected from the children, while dietary iron intake was determined using a combination of 24 hour dietary recall, food frequency questionnaire and weighed inventory technique. The values obtained for energy and nutrient intakes were compared with RDA recommendations. Anaemia was defined as Hb < 11.0mg/dl and iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin levels below 12ug/dl. Correlation coefficient was used to evaluate association between anaemia and nutritional as well as health factors. The results showed that the prevalence of anaemia was 82.6%, while iron deficiency was 77.8%. The average daily iron intake was 30% below the recommended allowance. There was a high prevalence of inflammatory disorders as indicated by CRP. Malaria parasite and worm infestations were high in the children (93.2% and 41.8%, respectively). Anaemia was significantly associated with helminth infestation, malaria parasite and CRP. The children had a mean weight and height below the recommended standards. Of all the children in the study (n=249), 77% were both stunted and underweight while 56% were wasted. The body composition values of normal children (body fat, triceps, subscapula skinfold thicknesses and abdominal circumference) were significantly higher than those of the malnourished children (p<0.05). The percentage of children having low BMI (<14.59) was 23.69%.The need for malaria and helminth control in these communities is recommended.

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken to assess the zinc status of under five children in Imo State. A cross sectional survey method was used for data collection. The sample was randomly selected to cover the three geopolitical zones in Imo State. Nine local government areas (LGA), three from each geo-political zone, were selected from where the samples were drawn. A total of four hundred (400) under-five children were selected by purposive sampling method. Two hundred were from the urban and two hundred from the rural locations. Height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumferences of the children were measured. Dietary intake for 20% of the sub sample using a three day food record method was adopted. Food samples were analyzed for proximate composition. Blood samples for determination of zinc levels were obtained by vein puncture. Structured and validated questionnaire was administered to elicit information related to socio-economic status of the parents and health status of the children. Zinc deficiency was 41.5%. Dietary zinc intakes were above recommended intake. Zinc deficiency (41.5%) among the children were significantly related to occupation of parents, types of mosquito protection, the child’s appearance and size, and sleepiness, weakness and tiredness. Based on these observations high premium for nutrition of mothers is imperative for nutritionists.

Abstract:
The study was undertaken to find the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia, among under-five children in Imo State of Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey method was used for data collection. The sample was randomly selected to cover the three geopolitical zones in Imo State. A total of four hundred (400) under-five children were selected by purposive sampling method. Two hundred were from the urban and another two hundred from the rural locations. Height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumferences of the children were measured. Dietary intake for 20% of the sub sample using a three day food record method was adopted. Food samples were analyzed for proximate composition. Blood samples for determination of serum ferritin, and vitamin C levels were obtained by vein puncture. Structured and validated questionnaire was administered to elicit information related to socio-economic status of the parents and health status of the children. The results showed that 48.1% were iron deficient although iron intakes were above recommended allowances. Vitamin C necessary for iron absorption was below recommended allowances. Variables strongly associated with iron deficiency were previous health status of the child, diarrheal treatment, feeling sleepy, tired and weak, complementary feeding timing, and worm infestation topped the list.

#### Abstract

Background: The association between dyslipidaemia, obesity and hypertension is well established, and all have been found to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD).  Aim: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices as markers for CVD among civil servants. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and five (205) apparently healthy civil servants (106, 51.7% males) aged 21-60 years, mean and standard deviation (SD) 40.9 (11.3) years, enrolled between February and April 2008 were assessed for their plasma lipid profile and anthropometrics (body weight and height) using standard methods and techniques. Results: Prevalent rates of overweight and obesity were 34.2% (70/205) and 6.8% (14/205), respectively, with more men affected than women. Abnormal lipids observed were: Elevated total cholesterol 37.1% (76/205), low.density lipoprotein.cholesterol (LDL.C) 37.1% (76/205), triglyceride 6.8% (14/205), reduced high.density lipoprotein.cholesterol (HDL.C) 8.8% (18/205) and elevated Atherogenic Index 10.7% (22/205) and Coronary Risk Index 9.8% (20/205), with the older age groups and higher Body Mass Index (BMI) groups being the most affected. Male subjects were found to have more favorable plasma lipid profile (lower LDL.C and higher HDL.C) than the females. Plasma lipids were positively correlated with BMI and artherogenic indices, except for HDL.C, which was negatively correlated with artherogenic indices and LDL.C but positively correlated with BMI. Conclusion: The findings show that civil servants in Abakaliki, particularly the females, those with higher BMI and advanced in age, exhibited unfavorable plasma lipids and social habits with a low level of physical activity, which may predispose them to CVD. In
addition to epidemiological study of the general population, there is a need for education on healthier lifestyles such as good nutrition, weight reduction, smoking and alcohol cessation, greater physical activity and regular medical check.up.

Abstract

Conophor plant (Tetracarpidium conophorum) is a tropical climbing shrub that belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is one of the lesser known and underutilized oilseeds. Mature conophor nuts were processed in three ways namely cooking for 2 h, roasting in hot sand at 130°C for 1 h and natural open air fermentation for three days. Both raw and processed samples were dried and milled into flour for the determination of proximate and mineral composition and certain antinutrients. The raw nuts showed high content of protein and fat. Cooking and fermentation further significantly (p<0.05) improved the protein level. Fat was significantly (p>0.05) reduced by fermentation. Ash, crude fibre and carbohydrates were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the three processing methods. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) reduced all the minerals determined. However, Ca content was significantly increased (p<0.05) by cooking and roasting. The sodium: potassium ratio in the raw sample (1.02) was reduced by the three processing methods. The level of antinutrients were generally reduced by cooking and fermentation with the latter being more effective than the former in the case of alkaloid content. Roasting increased the tannin content. The study thus reveals cooking and fermentation as good methods of processing the conophor nut in order to harness its nutrient.

Abstract

Conophor plant (Tetracarpidium conophorum) is a tropical climbing shrub that belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is one of the lesser known and underutilized oilseeds. Mature conophor nuts were processed in three ways namely cooking for 2hours, roasting in hot sand at 130oC for 1 hour and natural open air fermentation for three days. Both raw and processed samples were dried, and milled into flour for the determination of amino acid composition. The most abundant amino acids in both the raw and processed conophor samples were glutamate (14.56 – 16.10 g/100g protein) and aspartate (7.07 – 10.74 g/100g protein). Out of the essential amino acids, Isoleucine concentration was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by roasting and fermentation while valine level was reduced by roasting. The total amino acids (TAA) in all the samples were in the range of 745.1 – 798.2 mg/g protein. The total essential amino acids (TEAA) content ranged between 281.5 – 327.7 mg/g protein. From the calculated amino acid scores, lysine was found to be the limiting amino acid in both the raw and the processed samples. Arising from the reduction in TEAA in the raw conophor sample from 41.5 % to 37.5 % due to roasting, it may not be a desirable method of processing of conophor nut. Boiling and fermentation are however recommended.

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the idea of revitalizing communal role and participation in managing the environment for sustainable national development and what this type of development can do to improve the quality of life within communities.The paper examines what sustainable development entails and provides examples of the threats to quality of life that traditional approaches to development can generate. In doing this, the paper examines the environmental management problems with its attendant implication for human health. The problems facing the urban and rural environment in Nigeria are complex that they have exceeded the capacity of government to handle alone. A critical look at the environment reveals the existence of sums/ghettos, unplanned and neglected environment which has resulted in the spread of diseases, social disorder, poor human development and low productivity. Community approach to managing the environment is considered pertinent because it is now widely realized that cooperation of all actors:the private sector, NGOs, communities and government is required to build the neglected and dilapidated environment. Sustainable development is vital to the health of communities and especially important to rural communities now under pressure from high energy and infrastructure costs. The study is based on secondary source of data.It recommended among others the adoption of community-based approach for effective management of the environment because it engenders high level of citizens’ response to their commonly perceived problem of environmental decay.

Abstract

This study examines the role of infrastructure on poverty reduction in Owan West Local Government Area of Edo State Nigeria. The objectives identified the types, distribution and impacts of these facilities on the lives of the people. Data used were obtained from the field through questionnaire, oral interview and personal observation and also from secondary sources including published and unpublished materials. The study identified that few infrastructural facilities werelocated in the study area, which were however not equitably distributed. Even at this, the study showed that these facilities had impacts on the lives of the people of the study area. Impacts relating to poverty alleviation as observed were in the areas of access to medical care, mortality rate, employment and literacy. These impacts notwithstanding, it was observed that facility provision was confronted with numerous problems in the study area. These include inaccessibility, inadequacy, lack of maintenance of existing infrastructure and the attitude of government to rural facilities location.

#### Abstract

This paper discusses the need for entrepreneurship education in Nigeria geared towards enhancing sustainable development in the country. Since entrepreneurship skills remain vital in the real sector and the sustenance of economic development, it has become imperative for government to pay attention to this sub-sector. The problems facing the country ranging from acute poverty, youth and graduate unemployment, dependence on foreign goods and technology; to youth restiveness and violence among others has prompted government’s recognition of this fact that has led to the introduction of entrepreneurial studies in tertiary institutions. The concern is to encourage youths to engage in useful livelihood. This paper therefore argues that entrepreneurship education will equip the students with the necessary skills with which to be self-reliant. The objective and strategies for re-designing entrepreneurship education are also discussed. The paper recommends that educational programmes at all levels of education should be made relevant to provide the youths the needed entrepreneurial skills.

#### Abstract

The study, financial incentives and rewards on employee motivation in the Nigerian electricity distribution company, used likert scale form questionnaire to gather data from purposive selected employees of the company. On one hand, respondents were asked to rank six financial and non-financial incentives and rewards in order of importance. The result revealed that financial incentives and rewards were more important and motivating to the respondents. On the other hand, Chi-Square crossstabulation on the hypotheses revealed that financial incentives and rewards influence employee attitude, job satisfaction and productivity irrespective of gender and cadre in the organisation.  The study concludes that financial incentives and rewards motivate employee to have positive attitude at work, lead to job satisfaction, improve productivity, and recommends that employers should concentrate more on it to ensure employee positive attitude, job satisfaction, improved productivity and performance.

#### Abstract

Poverty is an enemy to man. It not only humiliates, it dehumanizes its victims. The paper examines why the country, Nigeria is rich and the people are poor. In doing this, the paper examines poverty alleviation programmes hitherto embarked upon by the previous governments and came up with the conclusion that these policies failed in alleviating poverty in Nigeria. Rather than alleviate poverty in the country, money meant for these programmes went into the pockets of friends and cronies. The reason being that the poor people were never involved in evolving these programmes. The programmes were designed from the top as a pill and swallowed by the poor at the bottom. The root cause of this is corruption. The paper therefore suggests that government should intensify efforts at curbing corruption. Additionally, the poor who were never considered when alleviation programmes were being designed should not only be consulted, they should be recruited in executing these programmes.

#### Abstract

This study examines the history of prolonged industrial conflicts between the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) and the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN). This study provides a historical and sociological account of the origins, development, primary causes and effects of industrial conflict in Nigerian universities. Data was sourced from both primary and secondary (documentary) sources. The study concludes that the ongoing ASUU strike is as a result of FGN’s indecision on the issues at stake. There are several domestic issues at stake – low wages and conditions of services, poor funding, poor and dilapidating facilities. These issues should not be glossed at. The study further revealed that macroeconomic policies further contributed to the intensity of these disputes. The findings reveal that poor emoluments of academic staff coupled with deterioration in teaching and learning facilities contributed to the brain drain from Nigerian universities. The paper reveals that disputes between ASUU and FGN has been propelled by several factors – historical, economic and political as such may continue to be difficult to resolve.

ABSTRACT

The paper highlights the main problems that have bedeviled the former pension scheme; which include unfunded and inadequate budget allocation for pension, huge outstanding pension liabilities estimated at over N1trn in the public sector, pension not based on defined benefits, the existence of multiple pensions scheme and the fraudulent activities of government officials which resulted in the delay in payment, short payments or outright non-payment of pension and gratuities to retirees. These sad developments coupled with the revolutionary changes in the management of pension schemes blowing across the globe necessitated Nigeria government’s decision to introduce pension reforms which is backed by the Pension Reform Act, 2004.
The Act spelt out in fine details the modus-operand of the new pension scheme which is contributory in nature.The paper also identified the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders in the new scheme and emphasized the need for ethics, transparency and accountability in the management of pension funds. It concludes by identifying the challenges of the new scheme and proferred suggestions that could improve the operation of the scheme bearing in mind the overriding issues of ethics, transparency and accountability.

## Abstract

The objective of the study is to establish whether quoted manufacturing companies in Nigeria are operating on the production possibility frontier, that is, if they are technically and scale efficient. In pursuance of this, the study adopted the output orientated DEA with input variables as total asset, shareholderâ€™s equity, cost of goods sold and operating expenses, while the output variables are sales/turnover, net profit, return on asset, and return on equity. Output orientated DEAP Version 2.1 package with variable return to scale assumption using multi-stage DEA is employed. The analysis revealed that quoted manufacturing companies in Nigeria are efficient with an average variable return to scale mean score of 85% and scale efficiency mean score of 76%. A breakdown of the results shows that thirty-one companies out of the fifty-eight companies selected for the study are operating on production possibility frontier while the remaining twenty-seven companies are not. It is recommended that the companies that are operating in the region of decreasing return to scale should scale down their inputs while those that are in the region of increasing return to scale should scale up their inputs.

## Abstract

The objective of the study is to examine whether quoted manufacturing companies in Nigeria are allocating their available resources efficiently. In pursuance of this, the study adopted the output orientated DEA model with four input and output variables. The input variables are total asset, shareholderâ€™s equity, cost of goods sold and operating expenses while the output variables are sales/turnover, net profit, return on asset, and return on equity. An output orientated DEAP Version 2.1 package was employed for the analysis. The method assumes variable return to scale assumption using multi-stage DEA. The result revealed that there was inefficient allocation of resources with the presence of high slacks for the input variables: total asset (114%), shareholderâ€™s equity (77%), cost of goods sold (47%) and operating expenses (71%) in the production process of quoted manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Given their high input slack, it is recommended that total asset and shareholderâ€™s equity should be depleted from their current allocations, and such resources be shifted to alternative production activities.

#### Abstract

The objective of this study is to identify quoted manufacturing companies in Nigeria that can be used as benchmark for less efficient companies. To achieve this objective, the study adopted the output orientated DEA model with total asset, shareholder’s equity, cost of goods sold and operating expenses as input variables, while the output variables are sales/turnover, net profit, return on asset, and return on equity. The output orientated DEAP Version 2.1 package with variable return to scale assumption [multi-stage DEA approach] was employed. The analysis revealed the inefficient quoted manufacturing companies that should emulate the efficient ones in terms of input-output mix. The result indicates that twenty-seven companies can be used for benchmarking. The study recommends possible merger of the inefficient companies with efficient ones in the same sector in order to strengthen them and enhance their contributions to development of Nigeria.

Abstract

In this work two mathematical models that described the dynamics of cholera in Nigeria were presented. The first model examined the bacteria population using a logistic definition for its growth in the expected habitat and their interaction with the susceptible population. The second model is an optimal control model that includes two time- dependent control functions with one minimizing the contact between the susceptible and the bacteria and the other, the population of the bacteria in the water. The results from the numerical solutions of the models presented showed that increasing the susceptible pool and the infected population above some threshold values were responsible for epidemic cholera. It also showed that the difference between the growth rate (r) and the loss rate (n) of the bacteria plays a huge role in the outbreak as well as the severity of the disease.

Abstract

The smallest non-associative Osborn loop is of order 16. Attempts in the past to construct higher orders have been very dicult. In this work, we develop a new method of constructing examples of generalized Osborn loops of order 4n . Two of such examples are presented. They are shown to be non-associative Osborn loops. These are further classi ed up to isomorphism to establish their
existence as distinct Osborn loops of order 4n.

Abstract

A new method of constructing Osborn loops of order 4n, n = 4; 6 and 12 is presented. The constructed example is found not to satisfy the characteristic identity for universal Osborn loops, like Moufang loops, VD-loops, CC-loops and universal WIPLs. Hence, it is a non-universal Osborn loop. Some existing theorems of product of groups are investigated, and paradigms of them and the conditions for the existence of such theorems in loops are also stated.

ABSTRACT

Let (L, ·) be any loop and let A(L) be a group of automorphisms of (L, ·) such that α and φ are elements of A(L). It is shown that, for all x, y, z ∈ L, the A(L)-holomorph (H, ○) = H(L) of (L, ·) is an Osborn loop if and only if xα(yz · xφ−1) = xα(yxλ · x) · zxφ−1. Furthermore, it is shown that for all x ∈ L, H(L) is an Osborn loop if and only if (L, ·) is an Osborn loop, (xα· xρ)x = xα, x(xλ · xφ−1) = xφ−1 and every pair of automorphisms in A(L) is nuclear (i.e. xα·xρ, xλ ·xφ ∈ N(L, ·)). It is shown that if H(L) is an Osborn loop, then A(L, ·) = 𝒫(L, ·)∩Λ(L, ·)∩Φ(L, ·)∩ Ψ(L, ·) and for any α ∈ A(L), α=Leπ=Reϱ−1$\alpha = L_{e\pi } = R_{e\varrho }^{ - 1}$ for some π ∈ Φ(L, ·) and some ϱ ∈ Ψ(L, ·). Some commutative diagrams are deduced by considering isomorphisms among the various groups of regular bijections (whose intersection is A(L)) and the nucleus of (L, ·).

This paper takes a look at a set of rhotrix whose entries are ordered natural numbers. This rhotrix is called the natural rhotrix. Properties of this set are examined and the results are presented. Since the natural rhotrix R is not invertible, a maiden investigation is made into the concepts of minor rhotrices of R, determinant functions (h(R)), codeterminant function (codet(R)), and index ρof a natural rhotrix. It was found that odet(R)=ρh(R and their methods of computations are outlined for mathematical enrichment.

Abstract

It is shown that an Osborn loop of order n has n/2 generators. Given the determining permutations, the representation Π is generated by R(2) ◦ R(2 + i) = R(3 + i)∀i = 1, 3, 5, ..., n − 3. The representation of Osborn loops of order 16 is presented and it is used as an example to verify the results. It is also shown that the order of every element of the representation Π divides the order of the loop, hence, Osborn loops of order 16 are langrangelike.

#### Abstract

This work investigates cholera as a disease using mathematical models with emphasis on its endemic nature. The focal point is to investigate the persistent endemic  nature of cholera in Nigeria using mathematical model. We found that, there can be no backward bifurcation because there existed only one positive endemic equilibrium. In other words, it is not possible for multiple endemic equilibria to exist if the reproduction number is less than one. Even when reproduction number is greater than one, only a single endemic equilibrium is shown to exist. There was however a transcritical (forward) bifurcation explaining the existence of a single endemic equilibrium

ABSTRACT

This work examines the condition under which a dynamical system (X, µ, G) is a measure space. Thus, in principle, it is closely allied to differential equations on manifolds, but in practice the focus is on the underlying sets (invariant sets or limit sets) and on the chaotic behavior of limiting systems. It summarizes this as a proposition that any dynamical system (X, µ, G) is a measure space (X,β,µ) if, and only if µ is a Haar measure and G a locally compact topological group of transformations. It is concludes by propounding a proof. It further gives a simple example to show that a dynamical system (X, µ, G) is indeed a measure space.

Abstract

Let (L,∙) be any loop and ∅ an automorphism of L into L such that x∅y∙zx=x∅(yz∙x) ∀ x,y,z ∈L.Then, it is shown that A(L) -holomorph (H,∘) of (L,∙) is an Osborn loop with inverse property where A(L) is a group of all automorphisms of (L,∙). Moreover, it is established that (H,∘) is an Osborn loop whenever x^λ∙x∅ is in the nucleus of (L,∙) and thus making each of the automorphisms of (L,∙) a nuclear automorphism.

#### Abstract

Background: In traditional medicine, Acalypha wilkesiana is frequently used solely or as a composite part of many herbal preparations for therapeutic purposes. This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effects of oral administration of extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves, on some serum diagnostic enzymes in normal experimental rabbits. Methods: Eighteen adult male experimental rabbits were randomized into three groups (A, B and C), comprising of six animals each. Group A animals were given aqueous extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves, while group B animals were given ethanol extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves. The extracts were administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for a period of twenty-one (21) days. Group C animals were given water, thus they served as control. Data are represented as Mean ± S.E.M (n = 6). Significance of Difference was tested by ANOVA at P < 0.05. Results: Administration of the aqueous or ethanol extracts, to the experimental animals resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), non-significantly (P > 0.05) lower serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and creatinine kinase (CK), as compared with the control animals. Conclusion: In view of the effects of the plant extracts on ALP and LDH levels, the use of Acalypha wilkesiana leaf in traditional medicine should be with caution.

Abstract

Background and Aim: Traditionally, Acalypha wilkesiana leaves are used in the management of hypertension, diarrhoea and dysentery. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of oral administration of extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves on serum aminotransferases activities and tissues of normal experimental rabbits. Methods and Design: Eighteen adult rabbits of the New Zealand strain, were randomized into three groups (groups A, B and C) of six rabbits each and treated as follows; Group A (Treated with Aqueous Extract), Group B (Treated with Ethanol Extract), Group C (Non treated-Control), and used for the study. Statistical Analysis: Data are represented as Mean ± S.E.M (n = 6). Significance of difference was tested by ANOVA at P < 0.05. Results and Conclusion: Administration of the extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight to normal experimental rabbits resulted in significantly lower levels of serum ALT and AST activities. Histological studies revealed that administration of the aqueous extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves to normal rabbits resulted in moderate congestion of blood vessels in the heart, mild lymphocytosis of the glomerular of the kidney, and no effect on the liver. While administration of the ethanol extract resulted in moderate congestion in blood vessels of the heart, moderate congestion of the central portal vein of the liver, and marked lymphocytosis in the kidney.

Abstract

The leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana are eaten as vegetables as part of the traditional management of hypertension in Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the implications of oral administration of extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves, on serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine, in normal experimental rabbits. A total of eighteen (18) rabbits were randomized into three groups (A, B and C) of six animals each and treated with aqueous (A) and ethanol (B) extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves. The extracts were administered orally at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight for a period of twenty-one (21) days. Group C animals served as control. Administration of the aqueous or ethanol extract, at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight, to normal rabbits resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) lower serum creatinine. Treatment with the aqueous or ethanol extract also resulted in a non-significantly (P > 0.05) lower serum urea, chloride, sodium and potassium, as compared with the control, in normal rabbits. Also, treatment with the aqueous extract resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) higher, while administration of the ethanol extract resulted in lower (P > 0.05) serum calcium levels of the normal rabbits, as compared with the control.

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the cholesterol-lowering property of garlic (Allium Sativum) in whole blood of egg yolk induced hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. Forty rabbits of both sexes of 13.1 ± 28.4 weeks of age with average body weights of 1251.9 ± 512.2g were used for the experiment. The animals were divided into eight groups comprising control and seven experimental groups with 5 rabbits per group. The animals were acclimatized with grower’s mash for one week after which the control group was fed with grower’s mash and the seven experimental groups were fed with grower’s mash supplemented with 10% egg yolk, 20% egg yolk, 2% garlic, 4% garlic, 10% egg yolk + 2% garlic, 20% egg yolk + 2% garlic, and 20% egg yolk + 4% garlic respectively for five weeks. Animals were phlebotomized through prominent ear veins and blood samples (2 ml) were collected from rabbits in each group before and after the treatment (diet administration) to assay for total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) using the CardioChek® analyzer; the LDL-cholesterol was determined using Friedewald formula. The TC analysis shows that there was no significant difference between the control and the treatment groups (P˃0.05). The HDL-Cholesterol analysis indicates no significant difference between the control and the treatment groups (P˃0.05) except the group that received 10% egg yolk + 2% garlic supplementation (P˂0.05). The LDL-Cholesterol analysis show significant differences exist between the control and all other treatment groups (P˂0.05) except the group that received 2% garlic supplement, where a decrease (P˃0.05) was observed. The results of TG analysis show no significant difference between the control and the treatment groups that received 10% egg yolk, 2% garlic or 10% egg yolk + 2% garlic supplementations (P˃0.05). However, there was significant increase (P˂0.05) in the TGs of the treatment groups that received 20% egg yolk, 4% garlic, 20% egg yolk + 2% garlic or 20% egg yolk + 4% garlic compared to the TG of the control group.While egg yolk supplementation did not induce hypercholesterolemia; it was observed that garlic powder supplementation did not demonstrate significant hypocholesterolemic effect on the lipid profile of rabbits.

ABSTRACT

Background: Acalypha wilkesiana, commonly called Irish petticoat, is native to the South Pacific Islands and belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. In traditional medicine practice, the leaves of A. wilkesiana are eaten as vegetables for the management of hypertension, being a diuretic plant. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of extracts of A. wilkesiana leaves on activities of serum aminotransferases and bilirubin levels, which are indicators of liver function, in salt loaded rabbits. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 rabbits were randomly divided into five Groups (A to E) of six rabbits each and treated with salt loaded diet, aqueous extract (Group B) and ethanol extract (Group C) of A. wilkesiana leaves; continuous salt loading (Group A); salt loaded and nontreated (D); nonloaded (with salt) and nontreated (with extract) (E). Results: Salt loading resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) higher serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST), and a significantly (P < 0.05) lower serum direct bilirubin, when compared with the control. Treatment with A. wilkesiana leaf extracts, at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight, resulted in a nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) lower serum total bilirubin and direct bilirubin, as compared with the control, in the salt loaded rabbits. Discussion and Conclusion: The use of A. wilkesiana leaf could be relatively safe considering its effects on serum ALT, AST, total and direct bilirubin of the experimental animals. Thus, it may be useful in the management of any possible deleterious effect of salt load to the liver.

Abstract

Background and Aim: Acalypha wilkesiana, commonly called Irish petticoat, is native to the south pacific islands and belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The plant has antimicrobial and antifungal properties and in traditional medicine, the leaves are eaten as vegetables in the management of hypertension, being a diuretic plant. This study was conducted to determine some phytochemical (quantitative) constituents of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves, with a view to evaluating its medicinal potentials. Method and Design: The samples (ethanol extract, aqueous extract and dried powder) of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves were analyzed for the presence of phytochemicals according to standard methods. Results: Quantitative analysis of these phytochemicals in the leave extracts (aqueous or ethanol) and powder of this plant revealed the presence of medicinally active constituents like saponins (0.44% in the aqueous extract, 0.22% in the ethanol extract and 0.23% in the powdered leaves), cardiac glycosides (0.031% in the aqueous extract, 0.073% in the ethanol extract and 0.099% in the powdered leaves), alkaloids (0.92% in the aqueous extract, 3.20% in the ethanol extract and 2.62% in the powdered leaves) and oxalate (2.4% in the aqueous extract, 16.2% in the ethanol extract and 18.6% in the powdered leaves). Other phytochemicals found were tannins, phenols, steroids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phytate and terpenoids. Discussion and Conclusion: The various phytochemical compounds detected areknown to have beneficial use in industries and medical sciences, and also exhibit physiological activity. The plant (Acalypha wilkesiana) studied here can be seen as a potential source of useful drugs.

Abstract

Aflatoxins (AFs), the secondary metabolites produced by species of Aspergillus, have harmful effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. This investigationwas designed to assess the potential of four strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for removing AFs in vitro. The stability of AFs complexes formed with LAB in viable and non-viable (heat treated) formswas assessed. The strain with the highest ability to bind AFswas selected to study its impact on removing AFs from contaminated wheat flour during baladi bread baking process. Three treatments of baladi bread produced from contaminated wheat flour were formulated including treatment (A) as control fermented by bakery yeast, treatment (B) fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus TISTR 541 and treatment (C) fermented by the mixture of bakery yeast and L. rhamnosus. The samples were collected during different steps of bread baking process. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the amounts of AFB and AFG detected in each sample and there were significant differences between the strains in their ability to bind AFB and AFG in the viable and heated stage. L. rhamnosus was the highest strain able to bind the AFB1 and treatment C was the highest in removing of AFs from contaminated wheat flour during baking process.

ABSTRACT

Functional properties of Imbrasia belina larvae flour processed by drying was affected by varying the pH and mesh size. The flour seem to have an improved functionality of water binding and oil binding at a lower pH but the emulsion activity and stability decreased with increasing pH. The foam ability of the flour also increased with decreasing pH. The functionalities of the larval protein is affected by the fine nature of the flour. The smaller the particle size, the better the functionality of the flour. The results indicate that the laevae contains quality protein which could be very useful in the food industries as nutritional additives.

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of garlic and tea on the performance, egg traits and laying parameters of laying hens. Five groups of black leghorn hens, Yafa breed (five birds per group) and aged 21 weeks were used for this experiment. Each group was fed basal diet (layers mash) supplemented with garlic at 1% garlic powder (group 1), 2% garlic powder (group 2), 1% black tea (group 3), 2% back tea (group 4) and a combination of 2% garlic and 2% tea (making 4% supplementation, group 5). Feeding was done for four weeks after a one week acclimatization period on test and control feeds. The effects of supplementation on the number and weight of eggs layed, the weight of hens and the weight of egg yolk were determined. Also determined were the total triglycerides, HDL-, LDL and total cholesterol content of egg yolk. Feeding of hens for 4 weeks with test and control diets resulted in non-significant changes (p>0.05) in the weights of birds, egg and egg yolk. All the garlic supplemented feeds resulted in significant reductions (p<0.05) of total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol. With exception of the 1% tea supplemented diet, the other tea supplemented diet resulted in significant reductions in the egg yolk concentration of the cholesterols tested. One percent tea supplementation had no significant effect on LDL-cholesterol concentration of egg yolk (p>0.05). The combination of garlic and tea resulted in significant reductions of total-LDL and HDL-cholesterol (p<0.05) but not total triglycerides (p>0.05). The control diets had in most cases non-significant effects on the lipid parameters tested. The results show that garlic and tea have great potential when low cholesterol egg is desired.

ABSTRACT

The effect of two phenothiazines: promethazine and chlorpromazine on the initial velocity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) oxidation of 2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) and potassium iodide (KI) was investigated. The phenothiazines enhanced the oxidation of ABTS and KI by HRP. Chlorpromazine (10 μM - 100 μM) produced a proportional increase in the initial velocity of HRP for oxidation of KI and ABTS. Increase in promethazine concentration within the range of 10 μM – 60 μM caused a linear increase in the activity of the enzyme. However, higher concentrations of promethazine (60 μM mM to 100 μM) resulted in a proportionate decrease in HRP activity. Unlike promethazine, chlorpromazine caused a linear increase in oxidation products within
a range of 10 μM-100 μM. A comparative study of the phenothiazines showed that chlorpromazine was a better redox mediator of the enzyme than promethazine. Hence, the turnover of the enzymatic products depends on the structure of the phenothiazine.

#### Abstract

The effect of the repeated administration of Moringa oleifera on blood glucose and serum lipid profile was investigated in male Wistar rats. Dry leaf powder of Moringa oleifera was extracted with water and lyophilized. Twenty four Wistar rats with body weight of 86.2 ± 4.43 g were grouped equally into four (A-D) and distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of extract were orally administered once daily for 56 days groups respectively. The body weights of rats were reduced (p<0.05) at high doses of the extract, while the blood glucose decreased (p<0.05) at all the doses. All the lipid profile parameters and atherogenic index were reduced (p<0.05) in rats administered the extract, except the high density lipoprotein cholesterol. From the foregoing, the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera has blood glucose and lipid reducing activities, and body weight maintenance capabilities.

Abstracts

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha wilkesiana on hematological parameters in male wistar rats.
Study Design: In_vivo.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences,
Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Nigeria, between August 2011 and October 2011.
Methodology: Thirty two male wistar rats of average body weights 167.50g were grouped into four (I-IV), of eight rats each. Group I received distilled water (control), while constituted doses of 2500, 5000 and 10000 mg/kg body weight of the extract were administered once daily for 14 days to animals in group II, III and IV respectively. The effect of administration of this extract on hematological parameters was evaluated.
Results: Results showed that the extract did not exhibit any significant effect (P>0.05) on packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocytes, platelets, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate at all the administered doses of the extract. There was a significant reduction in mean corpuscular volume at all doses of the administered extract when compared with the control.
Conclusion: The extract may be considered relatively hematotoxic at a dose of 2500 mg/kg due to its potentials to cause the formation of microcytic RBC’s.

Abstracts

Aims: To evaluate the hyponatremic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha wilkesiana in male wistar rats.
Study Design: In vivo study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Nigeria, between August 2011 and October 2011.
Methodology: Thirty two male wistar rats of average body weights (167.50 ± 5.56 g) were grouped into four (A-D), of eight rats each. Group A received distilled water (control), while constituted doses of 2500, 5000 and 10000 mg/kg body weight of the extract were administered once daily for 14 days to animals in group B, C and D respectively. The effect of administration of this extract on serum sodium ions and weight parameters was evaluated. Serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase; serum proteins, bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, potassium, calcium and phosphate ion concentrations were determined.
Results: Significant reductions (p<0.05) were observed in serum sodium ion at doses above 2500 mg/kg body weight and this reduction was significantly dose-dependent up to 10000 mg/kg body weight of the extract. No significant differences (p>0.05) were obtained in all other serum and weight parameters determined.
Conclusion: This extract at the administered doses is safe, and its hyponatremic action suggests that it could be used as a diuretic.

Abstract

The toxicological implications of long-term administration of aqueous leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata was investigated in male Wistar rats. Dry leaf powder was extracted with water and lyophilized. Forty male Wistar rats of average body weight of 130g were grouped into four (A-D), comprised of ten rats per group. Group A received distilled water (control), while doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of extract were administered once daily for 84 days to animals in groups B, C and D respectively. Significant reductions (p<0.05) were obtained at 1000 mg/kg body weight dose in ‘enzyme markers’ activities in tissues with corresponding significant increases (p<0.05) in the serum. Significant increases (p<0.05) were obtained in liver reduced GSH concentrations at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses with significant reductions (p<0.05) in liver MDA concentrations at these doses. Dose dependent significant reductions (p<0.05) were observed in the sperm count and motility. Varied alterations in were exhibited in the photomicrographs of the organs studied, as toxicity increased with dose increase. The results from the study revealed that the various enzyme activities suggested disruption of the plasma membrane at high doses of the extract. The extract at 1000 mg/kg body weight dose induced chronicinflammatory responses in tissues, suggesting that the use of the aqueous leaf extract of A. paniculata is recommended at doses of not more than 250 mg/kg body weight and its long-term or habitual use calls for caution especially spermatogenesis.

#### Abstract

The inactivation of peroxidases by its oxidant substrate H2O2 limits the usefulness of these versatile enzymes. Here, we investigated the effect of reaction conditions on inactivation of horseradish peroxidase by excess H2O2. Inactivation was more pronounced at pH extremes, indicating that reactions in which the oxidation products induce significant changes in reaction pH could accentuate the loss of peroxidase activity. In reactions carried out in sodium acetate buffer, higher inactivation rates were observed when the buffer ion concentration was increased, an indication that peroxidase might be generating reactive radicals from the buffer molecules. Promethazine exerted a modest protective effect against inactivation; however, higher  concentrations of the redox mediator caused a slight increase in inactivation, likely due to the formation of reactive promethazine radicals, which in turn attack the protein via a mechanism different from that caused by excess H2O2. These findings will help in defining the optimal reaction conditions that preserve the activity of the peroxidase molecules.

Abstract

The effects of two hydrazine derivatives (isoniazid and hydralazine) on the inactivation of myeloperoxidase by H2O2 were investigated. Incubation of 20 nM myeloperoxidase with 0.25 mM H2O2 alone caused a time-dependent irreversible loss of tetramethylbenzidine oxidation activity with a pseudo-first order inactivation rate constant of 0.057 min-1. The hydrazine derivatives increased the inactivation rate in a concentration-dependent manner. Inactivation of the enzyme by H2O2 with or without the hydrazides showed a saturation kinetics pattern. Steady state kinetics analysis suggests that the hydrazides likely inactivate myeloperoxidase using a similar inactivating species as does H2O2. A bimolecular rate constant, specific inactivation rate enhancement factor (k*enh) is proposed as a formal description of the inactivation rate stimulation by the hydrazides. This parameter potentially avoids confounding the finite inactivation due to H2O2 with that caused by the presence of the hydrazides. The relevance of these findings and the constants derived to the analysis of suicide inactivation of peroxidases by reductant substrates are discussed.

Abstract

Proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of leaves of Acalypha hispida, Acalypha marginata and Acalypha racemosa were investigated. Proximate composition of leaves of Acalypha hispida showed that it contained moisture (11.02%), crude fat (6.15%), ash (10.32%), crude protein (13.78%), crude fibre (10.25%) and carbohydrate (44.48%). Similarly, Acalypha marginata showed that it contained moisture (10.83%), crude fat (5.60%), ash (15.68%), crude protein (18.15%), crude fibre (11.50%) and carbohydrate (38.24%); while Acalypha racemosa contained moisture (11.91%), crude fat (6.30%), ash (13.14%), crude protein (16.19%), crude fibre (7.20%) and carbohydrate (45.26%). The phytochemicals detected in both aqueous and methanolic extracts of each of the different species of leaves were the same and are phenolics, flavonoids, hydroxyanthraquinones and saponins. Steroids and phlobatannins were detected in Acalypha hispida and Acalypha racemosa, while glycoside was detected only in Acalypha hispida. All these results indicate that the leaves of these Acalypha species contains nutrients and mineral elements that may be useful in nutrition. The presence of some phytochemicals like saponins and flavonoids explained the medicinal action of the plant encountered in its therapeutic uses.

ABSTRACT

The effects of simultaneous treatment of CCl4 with 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of Acalypha racemosa on rat liver were evaluated. Analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities with those of the concentrations of albumin, total protein, unconjugated and total bilirubin was carried out. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content of liver was determined to investigate a probable mechanism of action of the extract. Histopathological studies
were carried out to confirm the observed changes. Administration of CCl4 alone to rats significantly increased total bilirubin concentration and the activities of ALT and AST (p<0.05) in the serum while it significantly reduced (p<0.05) serum total protein and albumin concentrations when compared with controls. Also, it significantly increased (p<0.05) liver MDA content when compared to control. However, simultaneous administration of CCl4 with 60 and 120 mg/kg of the methanolic extract significantly (p<0.05) reversed these changes. Since both doses of the methanolic extract of A. racemosa were able to significantly reduce liver MDA content, it thus suggests that a probable mechanism of action of the extract is antioxidation.

ABSTRACT

The effects of simultaneous treatment of CCl 4 (i.p) with 60 mg/kg (p.o) of aqueous extract of leaves of Acalypha racemosa on rat liver was evaluated. Analysis of serum ALT and AST activities with those of the concentrations of albumin, total protein, unconjugated and total bilirubin were carried out. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content of liver was determined to investigate a probable mechanism of action of the extract. Administration of CCl4 alone to rats significantly increased total bilirubin concentration and the activities of ALT and AST (p < 0.05) in the serum while it significantly reduced (p < 0.05) serum total protein and albumin concentrations when compared with controls which received distilled water (p.o). Also it significantly increased (p < 0.05) liver MDA content when compared with control. However, simultaneous treatment of CCl4 with 60 mg/kg of the aqueous extract significantly reversed (p < 0.05) these changes. Results of MDA content of liver homogenates suggest that a probable mechanism of action of the extract is antioxidation. Histopathological studies were carried out on the liver to confirm the observed changes

Abstract

Background: Carica papaya is a member of the Caricaceae family. The ripe fruits are juicy and rich in nutrients. The unripe fruits are seldom consumed. There are several unverified claims of traditional usage of unripe Carica papaya in phytotherapy. Ripe papaya is used to improves digestive and abdominal disorders, treat dyspepsia, hyperacidity, dysentery and constipation. Extracts of unripe C. papaya contain considerable photochemical, also used to treat diuretic or mild laxative and to stimulate lactation. Information on the consumption of raw unripe papaya is observed to be scarce. Objectives: The thrust of this study was to examine the possible outcome of consuming mature and unripe Carica papaya on some antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles in rats. To conduct this study, a 4 x 6 experiment was designed, comprising four groups of six rats per group. Control (Group A) was fed with standard feed. Group B received standard feed with unpeeled blend of Carica papaya. Group C received standard feed with peeled blend of Carica papaya, while Group D was given standard feed with boiled and unpeeled blend of Carica papaya. The feed-papaya mix ratio was 80:20 respectively in all cases. Feeding took four weeks duration, after which blood samples were harvested and processed for analysis. Methods: Nutrients composition of feed blends was done with AOAC methods. Serum Total Cholesterol, Triacylglyceride (TG) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) were determined with standard assay kits. Serum catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were assayed using standard procedures. Results: Weight gains were observed among all groups. There was significant

Abstract

Introduction: The plant, Vernonia amygdalina is a tropical plant commonly used in the treatment of ailments locally because it is assumed that it possesses medicinal properties. Objective: The mediating role of its leaf extract in ameliorating oxidative stress is thus explored in this investigation. Methods: The leave samples were collected, air dried, homogenized and sieved to obtain particle sizes of â‰¤ 0.250mm. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of samples were obtained and used to assay for total alkaloid and phenolic contents, free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the extent of lipid peroxidation in liver and kidneys were determined. Standard analytical methods were used in all assays. Results: Free radicals inhibitions and reducing powers of extracts were found to increase with increasing extracts concentrations, with highest inhibitions obtained as 98.80 ± 6.45 and 77.99 ± 6.34% in aqueous and methanol, as against 100.00 ± 0.00% respective controls of ascorbic acid and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT). Reducing powers of extracts increased with progressive increases in extracts concentrations, with 1.23 ± 6.34mgRE/g for aqueous and 0.53 ± 0.04mgRE/g in methanol, as compared with respective controls of 2.13 ± 0.04 and 2.49 ± 0.03 respectively. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for aqueous and MeOH extracts are 2.0mg/mL and 2.3mg/mL respectively. For reducing power, it was 4.2mgRE/g and 2.2mgRE/g respectively, as against 2.8 mgRE/g and 2.96mgRE/g for Vit C and BHT controls respectively. The leave extracts of Vernonia amygdalina significantly

## Abstract

Background: Vernoniaamygdalina and Ocimumgratissimumare widely used plants in the tropics. The leaves of these plants are popularly acclaimed to have medicinal values, with scarce information on the effect of graded extracts in mediating oxidative stress. The interest on these leaves derives from the need to have an insight to the possible effect of thesegraded leaves extracts may have on oxidative stress. Objectives: The objective of the study was to examine the effect of graded extracts of Vernoniaamygdalina and Ocimumgratissimum leaves specifically on free radical inhibition, reducing power and lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidneys. Methods: The leave samples were collected and air dried, homogenized and sieved to obtain particle sizes of ≤ 0.250mm. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of samples were obtained and used to assay for total alkaloid and phenolic contents, free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the extent of lipid peroxidationin liver and kidneys were determined, using standard analytical assays. Results: Phenolic contents of both leave extracts were higher in aqueous medium vernoniaamygdalina (0.85 ± 0.07mgGAE/g) and Ocimumgratissimum (1.59 ± 0.13mgGAE/g). The alkaloid contents of the leaves were higher in methanolic extracts, with Ocimumgratissimum highest (0.96 ± 0.04μg/g) and vernoniaamygdalina (0.38 ± 0.01μg/g). The reducing power of these leaves increased with increasing extract concentrations. Ocimumgratissimum had the highest reducing power in both methanolic (3.00 O.D) and aqueous (2.82 O.D) medium in comparison with respective butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) (2.49 O.D) and ascorbic acid (2.16 O.D) controls. The ability to scavenge free radicals increased with increasing extract concentrations in both leaves with highest percentages in aqueous extracts. Ocimumgratissimum(95.90%) and vernoniaamygdalina(98.80%) compared to control (100%).The leave extracts of both plants significantly (p<0.05) increased lipid peroxidations in liver and kidneys of rats. Conclusion: Fresh leaves of Ocimumgratissimumand vernoniaamygdalina have shown potentials to be valuable in reducing powers and free radical quenching.

ABSTRACT

Aim: The effect of chloroquine, folic and ascorbic acid on malaria parasite induced oxidative stress was the focus of this study. The study relevance derives from the need to understand the specific roles of these individual organic acids used in combination with chloroquine.
Study Design: The design involves five groups of control (non-parasitized-nontreated), parasitized nontreated (PnT), parasitized chloroquine and ascorbic acid treated (Pcq+asT), parasitized chloroquine and folic acid treated (Pcq+faT) and parasitized chloroquine, ascorbic and folic acid treated (Pcq+asT+faT).
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Ambrose Alli University (Faculty of Natural Sciences). This study is part of a research that lasted three years.
Materials and Methods: Treatment regime was for three days after parasitemia in mice was established with Gemsa stain. All biochemical and haematological parameters assayed for in this project were conducted using standard procedures.
Result: Chloroquine and vitamin treatments significantly (P=.05) reduced erythrocyte fragility (EF), total bilirubin and increased packed cell volume (PCV) when compared with PnT parameters of mice. Treatments significantly (P=.05) increased serum albumin compared with control and had no effect on the serum albumin levels of PnT mice. Treatment with cq+asa and cq+as+fa resulted in significant (P=.05) oxidative stress in mice compared to control but reduced (P=.05) oxidative stress in comparison with PnT mice. Exceptionally, chloroquine and folic acid treatment did not show any significant change in oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in mice when compared with control.
Conclusion: The results suggest chloroquine and folic acid treatment to be more effective than ascorbic acid or other combination treatment employed in this study in the management of malaria induced oxidative stress.

#### Abstract

In Nigeria cassava root rot causes serious yield losses in cassava tuber production every year. However, the influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype at harvest on consumers’ acceptability of the gari produced from it has not been studied. A sensory evaluation was conducted on gari processed from the tuberous root yield of rot susceptible TME-1 and improved TMS 30572, harvested at 12 months after planting at Sabongidda-Ora (humid forest eco-zone) of Nigeria during the 2003 and 2004 cropping seasons. A 5-point hedonic scale ranging from like extremely, through neither like nor dislike, to dislike extremely was designed to measure the degree of liking for the gari processed from both genotypes. 28 panelists were asked to indicate their degree of preference for the colour, odour and taste of each gari sample by choosing the appropriate category in the hedonic scale. The results were compared with the tuberous root rot incidence and severity of genotypes in the field. All experiments were repeated and the data collected were statistically analysed using the general linear model statistical procedures with the SAS system for windows. Comparisons among treatment means was done with the least significant square, with the Duncan multiple range test (P = 0.05). Variety TME-1 with the highest root rot incidence and severity of 53 and 21% respectively was less preferred for gari colour, texture and odour compared to TMS 30572 which had 15 and 6% rot incidence and severity respectively. In the second year trial where TME-1 still possessed the highest rot incidence and severity, panellists still showed more preference for the colour, taste and odour in TMS 30572 gari than TME-1 gari. All the differences observed and reported above between TMS 30572 and TME-1 were significantly different at probability 0.05%. The results of this experiment clearly show that high root rot incidence of a cassava genotype in the field can reduce consumer’s acceptability of the gari produced from it.

Abstract

A field experiment to determine the influence of root rot on dry matter partition of three cassava cultivars planted in the Sabongidda-Ora humid forests and in the Ibadan derived savanna of Nigeria was carried out from July 2003-November 2005. In each location, healthy cassava stems of three varieties; TME-1 (local), TMS 30572 and TMS 4 (2) 1425 (both improved) were planted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Dry matter partition data were recorded and statistically analysed using the general linear model statistical procedures. Comparisons among treatment means less than six were made with the Least significant square and up to six and above with the Duncan multiple range test (p = 0.05). Results were compared with the previously reported root rot incidences and severities from the same cultivars. Results showed cultivar TME-1; previously reported to have the highest root rot incidence of 52.6% and a severity of 21.3% at 12 months after planting in Sabongidda-Ora humid forest, to have the lowest dry matter partition of 367.4 g to roots in the same location, 12 months after planting. This was significantly lower than the 804.1 g of TMS 4(2)1425 and the 667.6 g of TMS 30572 recorded in the same location; cultivars TMS 4(2)1425 and TMS 30572 have also been reported to have the lowest root rot incidences of 0 and 6.4% and severities of 0-0.5% at the Ibadan derived savanna. The trend was the same during the second year planting. The results show clearly that root rot can have significantly negative effect on the dry matter partition to the storage roots of root rot susceptible cassava cultivar.

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the decay of Nigerian urban built environment and its impacts on the Health of city dwellers. The paper identifies the problems that have aided the decay to: Inadequate basic infrastructural amenities, substandard housing, overcrowding, poor ventilation in homes and work places, sanitation and noncompliance with building bye-laws and regulations. The paper asserts that the deterioration has serious adverse effects on the heath of city residents. Strategies for improving the built environment for healthy and sustainable living are suggested. The paper concluded that it is imperative to check and prevent further decay for harmonious living and sustainable development.

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the problems and challenges of the Nigeria’s urban built environment. Nigeria’s built environment is in the state of chaos; as a result of physical deterioration and infrastructures decadence. The decay has resulted in the creation of slums and blights in our urban centers. The paper traces the factors responsible for these, to that: associated with the rapid
urbanization; rural-urban migration, which is exerting undue pressure on the available facilities in the urban centers; inadequate and insufficient housing to meet demand and ineffective urban housekeeping. The paper asserts that to avert further decay; there is an urgent need for effective action along a broad front; through urban regeneration of the built environment. Such regeneration
should focus on slum eradication and families from them must have decent housing at an affordable cost. Blights must be removed and further spread prevented. The paper posits that our urban centers should be a conducive, harmonious, and pleasing living environment for the citizenry. Therefore, there is the need: to stimulate an effective rural development programme; by the provision of basic infrastructures, amenities and services in the rural areas. These would encourage industrialization of the rural areas; and consequently, serve as growth poles and springboards for the redistribution of population and traffic patterns; for sustainable balance development. The paper concludes that Nigeria can still achieve sustainable human settlement, provided we are ready to adopt and apply the norms and principles of good urban housekeeping.

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the problems and challenges of the Nigeria’s urban built environment. Nigeria’s built environment is in the state of chaos; as a result of physical deterioration and infrastructures decadence. The decay has resulted in the creation of slums and blights in our urban centers. The paper traces the factors responsible for these, to that: associated with the rapid urbanization; rural-urban migration, which is exerting undue pressure on the available facilities in the urban centers; inadequate and insufficient housing to meet demand and ineffective urban housekeeping. The paper asserts that to avert further decay; there is an urgent need for effective action along a broad front; through urban regeneration of the built environment. Such regeneration should focus on slum eradication and families from them must have decent housing at an affordable cost. Blights must be removed and further spread prevented. The paper posits that our urban centers should be a conducive, harmonious, and pleasing living environment
for the citizenry. Therefore, there is the need: to stimulate an effective rural development programme; by the provision of basic infrastructures, amenities and services in the rural areas. These would encourage industrialization of the rural areas; and consequently, serve as growth poles and springboards for the redistribution of population and traffic patterns; for sustainable balance development. The paper concludes that Nigeria can still achieve sustainable human settlement, provided we are ready to adopt and apply the norms and principles of good urban housekeeping.

ABSTRACT

Nigeria’s major urban centres are today grappling with the problems caused by mounting heaps of solid wastes from their environments. This paper undertakes a study of the solid waste build up phenomenon with a view toward finding ameliorative measures that would help reduce their negative effects on urban beautification and sanitation. And hopefully, to provide insights into easing, reducing, minimizing and avoiding the evolving solid, waste encroachment of city streets and roads, particularly in areas of uncontrolled growth and developmenttypifying cities in Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the impact of the built environment on the pattern of social life of the home dweller. Housing and planning rest on the premise that by the manipulation of the physical environment we can control social patterns. In general, it is said that architecture controls the environment in order to make interaction and collaboration possible. The paper attempts to assess this premise. In the context of architecture and city design, the physical environment is generally known as the built environment. The built environment simply refers to the buildings and spaces between them. The purpose of architecture is to give order to certain aspects of our environment. This implies that architecture controls or regulates the relations between man and his environment. It, therefore, participates in creating a meaningful frame for the activities of man. The paper posits that if housing exerts an independent influence on how we live, then the creation of certain housing conditions can change social relationship. We can affect the choice of friends, family adjustment, and generally how people spend their time. Different housing decisions may have different social consequences. This paper examines the various ways the manipulation of the environment could result to a better sustainable and environmentally conscious architecture. The paper recommends that architecture, as a human product should be used to order and improve our relations with the environments.

Abstract

The paper examines the increasing incidences of building collapse in Nigeria. The paper attributes the rising incidents of building collapse to the use of substandard building materials and incompetent professionals in construction activities; the refusal of the wider society to recongnise professionalism and pay for the services and the attitude of the building contractors and other stakeholders as the major problem. The paper asserts that promoting or achieving an enduring safety culture in building involves designing, constructing and using buildings, in such a manner as to make the building safe for occupation and for carrying out all desired activities. Strategies for ameliorating the trend are suggested. The paper posits that stakeholders in the building development have great roles to play to reduce and avert this trend.

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the challenges of architectural education and practice in Nigeria. It further examines employment opportunities available to the architect. The paper identifies problems confronting architectural education and practice such as: inadequate practical education of architects to face the professional challenges ahead, lack of public awareness of the architect’s role and responsibilities, lack of passion for the profession by some of the professionals, dearth of commissions, erosion and encroachment on the profession by non architects etc. The paper relied on secondary data. The paper opines that architecture is a noble and challenging profession that should not be left in the hands of charlatans and quacks. The paper recommends strategies such as educating the public, implementing the extant laws, regulating the profession in Nigeria, acquisition of more practical knowledge by architects to play their proper role in the building industry.

Abstract

Land acquisition constitutes a major problem in home ownership or housing development. This paper investigates the constraints and challenges of acquiring land in Benin Metropolis; with the aim of enhancing land acquisition process. It further examines the Land Use Act as it affects individual housing development especially for the low and medium income earners in Benin Metropolis. Primary and secondary data were used. The primary data was obtained from field surveys over a ten (10) years period and covering ten (10) communities within Benin Metropolis; while the secondary data were obtained from government institutions and print media. Survey research design was employed in carrying out the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The findings revealed that firstly, there has been a significant increase in price of urban land within Benin Metropolis. Secondly, that land tenure and acquisition constituted a major problem in home ownership and development in Benin Metropolis. Thirdly, the increase in the price of land in one community affects the prices of land in neighbouring communities. Fourthly, the activities of land speculators (or traders) also contributed to increase in prices of land. The paper recommends that both federal and state government should focus on providing enabling environment such as embarking on site and services schemes; and also stimulate an effective integrated rural development programmes to encourage development of rural areas. The integrated rural development will consequently serve as growth poles for enhanced rural development.

Abstract

This study investigates the effect of curing methods on the compressive strength of concrete with fine and coarse aggregates components fully and partly replaced with lateritic sand and periwinkle shell. A total of 45 cubes specimens of 100mm x 100mm dimensions for each percentage replacements ranging from 10% to 40% and 100% respectively were cast and cured in water and open air for 7, 14 and 28 days. The water cement ratio used is 0.65. 1:2:4 and 1:3:7 mixing ratios were adopted. The procedures for testing and crushing were carried out in accordance with B.S. 1881: Part 116: 1983. The results show that compressive strength of concrete generally increases irrespective of the percentage replacement and curing methods as the curing age increases. Compressive strength of concrete with lateritic sand and periwinkle shell as partial replacement up to 20% is the highest compared to other percentage replacements irrespective of the curing ages and curing methods.

The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of selected teaching strategies in theremediation of process errors committed by students in mathematics in senior secondary schools. Four hypotheseswere formulated to guide the study. The study employed the quasi–experimental design. Sample for the study consistedof two hundred and seven (207) students drawn from six senior secondary schools randomly selected from the threehundred and sixty senior secondary schools in Edo State. The Diagnostic Test on Mathematics (DIATOM) was usedto collect data for the study. Data collected were analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and z-test for twopopulation proportions. Results of data analysis revealed that the direct instruction was a more effective strategy forthe remediation of process errors committed by students in mathematics. Sex and school location were shown not tohave had any significant influence on the effectiveness of either strategy. The study recommended that enoughpractice activities should be given to students during class sessions to assist them develop mastery of content taught.

Over the past two decades, women limited participation in science, technology and mathematics (STM) courses in tertiary institutions has been a cause for concern in Nigeria. Women today, constitute over half of the world’s population. This paper therefore, discusses the present situation of female participation in STM, some of the factors that tend to hinder females’ participation in STM, vis-à-vis the effects of this limited participation on national development. The paper recommended some of the ways to overcome the barriers to female participation in STM.

ABSTRACT

The Nigeria economy requires Mathematics that can effectively put science and technology in the for- front of nation building. This paper reviewed the role of Mathematics in Science and Technology and the nature of Mathematics that would facilitate the realization of a dynamic economy. The challenges of Mathematics education in the 21st century were highlighted to include: i. Incorporating new developments in Science and Technology into Mathematics, ii. Acceleration of programs for the continued professional development of teachers; and iii. Need for Mathematics educators to find new assessment instruments that reflect the new expectation of mathematics education.

This paper centers on the modeling and optimum capacity allocation of micro-grids capable of operating autonomously from (or in parallel with) an unreliable grid network. The aim is to estimate the monetary cost of reliable power served, considering the unreliable nature of electric power grid in the developing world. The micro-grid developed consists of the photovoltaic and wind energy conversion systems, the hybrid (super-capacitor/battery) storage and a power conversion system. The grid model utilized a probability-based prediction technique due to the random nature of grid network. The formulated optimization problem was solved using the hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Pattern Search (h-GAPS) based model. The problem objectives were considered in terms of monetary cost while constraining the micro-grid to reliably satisfy the power demand based on the proposed energy management strategy. The process was simulated for a telecommunication system load at Abuja (lat. 9.08°N, long. 7.53°E). The simulation results are presented and discussed.

This paper presents the simulation of an isolated solar photovoltaic-fuel cell (PV/FC) hybrid system with hydrogen storage for mobile telecommunication sites. The objective was to determine the optimum size, monetary cost and power supply reliability of the PV/FC hybrid system as an alternative source of power to isolated telecommunication sites. The optimum sizing was accomplished based on the energy-balance evaluation techniques using the Hybrid Optimisation Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software. Case study simulations were carried out for an off-grid site situated at Sokoto (Lat. 13°10.9′N, Long. 5°20.4′E) using the 22 years monthly averaged solar radiation data. The results showed that a hybrid system made up of 31kW PV generator, 3kW fuel cell system, 12kW electrolyser and a hydrogen storage tank of 4kg can enable a reliable power supply to isolated telecommunication sites at Sokoto at a cost of ₦ 40.02 per kWh. A present worth of ₦77,292,020, a return on investment of 13.1% and an internal rate of return of 12.4% can be derived from the simulated hybrid system compared to the traditional use of diesel-only generator system.

The rising demands for a sustainable energy system have stimulated global interests in renewable energy sources. Wind is the fastest growing and promising source of renewable power generation globally. The inclusion of wind power into the electric grid can severely impact the monetary cost, stability and quality of the grid network due to the erratic nature of wind. Power electronics technology can enable optimum performance of the wind power generation system, transferring suitable and applicable energy to the electricity grid. Power electronics can be used for smooth transfer of wind energy to electricity grid but the technology for wind turbines is influenced by the type of generator employed, the energy demand and the grid requirements. This paper investigates the constraints and standards of wind energy conversion technology and the enabling power electronic technology for integration to electricity grid.

This research paper centres on the optimum design, simulation and performance investigation of a micro-power system for off-grid locations. The objectives are to verify the monetary cost, power supply reliability and ecological benefits of the addition of wind turbines and solar photovoltaic array to a diesel generator system for electric power generation in remote sites. The optimum design configuration of the hybrid micro-power system was established on the basis of energy-balance estimations using the Hybrid Optimisation Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software. Simulations were carried out for a remote site in Maiduguri (lat. 11°50.9′N and long. 13°9.2′E), with a population size of 50 households, using the estimated electric load profile and 22-years meteorological data sets collected for the studied area. The results showed that a micro-power system made up of 75kW wind turbine, 46.7kW of solar photovoltaic generator and a battery bank capacity of 420.34kWh (24V, 17,514Ah) can reliably satisfy the electric power demands for a remote site at Maiduguri (with a daily peak and average consumption of 97.74kW and 563kWh/d respectively). Moreover, a monetary cost saving of over 79% in addition to a reduction of 5,125 kg/y of CO2 emission per household energy consumption can be achieved compared with the traditional diesel-only power generation system.

ABSTRACT

Degradability characteristics of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) in four tree leaves and four crop residues were evaluated in this study using the nylon bag technique with three cannulated rams. The results revealed significant variations between the leaves and residues in terms of DM and CP degradability characteristics. The potential degradability of DM ranged from 65.94 to 96.69% in the leaves and 51.28 to 73.77% in the residues whereas DM disappearance after 48 hrs of incubation was from 43.27 to 73.50% and 34.03 to 54.27% respectively. Effective degradability (ED) of DM decreased with increase in outflow rates ranging from a low of 35.88% (k=0.05) to 72.67% (k=0.02) in the leaves and 26.59% (k=0.05) to 54.60% (k=0.02) in the residues. Potentially the degradability of CP in the leaves was between 22.41 and 57.38% and 22.87 and 57.19% in the residues. The least ED (k=0.05) of CP was 14.11% while the highest was 48.01% (k=0.02) in the leaves whereas the residues had a range between 13.20% (k=0.05) and 46.70% (k=0.02). Crude protein disappearance post-incubation for 48 hrs ranged between 17.63 and 53.81% and 14.34 and 53.07% in the leaves and residues respectively. The findings of this study showed that the DM compared with CP in the leaves and residues was more degradable in the rumen with the leaves better in this same regard. The information thus provided by this study could be useful in the planning of ruminant diets particularly in the dry season of the tropics.

Abstract

The haematological and biochemical status of twenty West African dwarf goats fed Panicum maximum supplemented with foliage from Afzelia africana and Newbouldia laevis was investigated. Values for PCV, Hb concentration and RBC count differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the diets. Average PCV value was highest in 25Nwb:75Pm diet and least in 25Afz:75Pm diet. Hb concentration was significantly higher in diet 25Nwb:75Pm than in diet 25Afz:75Pm but not different from all the other dietary treatments. RBC counts observed differed between the dietary treatments. Apart from the values obtained for sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, total protein and aspartate transaminase, differences between the measured biochemical parameters were not significant (P > 0.05) between the diets. Sodium was highest in 25Afz:75Pm diet and varied significantly (P < 0.05) compared to 50Nwb:50Pm diet. Potassium in the serum of the studied animals was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 25Afz:75Pm diet than in 25Nwb:75Pm and 100Pm (control) diets but did not differ from diets 50Afz:50Pm and 50Nwb:50Pm. In terms of total protein level, only the 100Pm (control) diet differed significantly from the supplemented diets. Activities of the enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in the sampled sera did not vary between the diets except for aspartate transaminase where, only the 50Nwb:50Pm diet differed from the other diets. These results to a large extent suggest the positive potential of the studied plant leaves in the feeding of goats without adverse effects.

Abstract

This study was carried out to assess the reproductive performance of cycling West African Dwarf does as well as to assess the efficacy of medroxyl-progestrone acetate, an estrus synchronizing drug, that has the advantage of being administered orally and intramuscularly. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design using 40 cycling does divided into five experimental treatment groups. The results of the experiment show that estrus behavior in the does was significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dosage and route of drug administration. On the other hand, other reproductive traits assessed such as gestation length (days), litter size at birth, birth weight of kids (Kg) and weaning weight (Kg) were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the drug. These results show that there is good prospect in the use of medroxyl-progestrone acetate orally and intramuscularly in synchronizing estrus in cycling WAD does.

Abstract

The potential nutritive values of eight browse forages namely: Olea hochstteteri, Ziziphus mauritiana, Zhiziphus spinzchristi, Pterocarpus erinceus, Sterculia setigera, Balanites aegyptiaca, Ficus sycomorus and Adansonia digitata of North eastern Nigeria were evaluated by chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The samples were collected and analysed in triplicates. There were significant differences among species in terms of chemical composition. A range of 2.00 to 6.00% and 12.00 to 18.00% DM were recorded for EE and Ash values for the eight browses. Their fibre parameters showed a range of 34.40 to 54.80, 16.55 to 33.40, 9.70 to 67.17, g/100 g DM for NDF, ADF and ADL, respectively. The values reported for anti nutritive factors range from 0.12 to 0.41 mg/g MD for TCT and 0.24 to 0.81 mg/g MD for phenolics. An in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, %) study was conducted using rumen liquor as source of inoculum. Dry samples (leaves) of eight semi-arid browses were used as substrates. Crude protein (CP) in leaf dry matter ranged from 13.23 in Olea hochstteteri to 18.31% DM in Balanites aegyptiaca. The IVDMD was highest (78.20%) in Balanites aegyptiaca and had the highest CP content while Olea hochstteteri had the lowest IVDMD (45.00% DM) and lowest CP content (13.23%). The result also reveals a negative correlation of IVDMD with cell wall contents (NDF, ADF and ADL) and a positive correlation with TCT. There is a positive correlation between CP and phenolics. The result for methane production shows that Ziziphus spinachisti had the highest methane value (24 ml/200 mg DM) while Ziziphus mauritiana had the lowest methane production (4 ml/200 mg DM). Based on chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility, the browse species forages have high potential nutritive value especially as protein supplements to poor quality forages for ruminant animals in the tropics and in terms of rumen and whole tract digestibility.

ABSTRACT

The in vitro gas production of semi-arid browse species were evaluated. The relationship between in vitro gas measured on in-cubation of tannin-containing browses in buffered rumen fluid and calculated from short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production was investigated. Crude protein (CP) contents in the browses ranged from 138.50 to 166.50 g.kg-1 dry matter (DM). The NDF, ADF and ADL were 373.00 to 512.00, 162.00 to 419.00, and 49.00 to 127.00 g.kg-1 DM respectively. Total condensed tannin (TCT) ranged from 0.15 to 0.39 mg/g DM. The TCT significantly correlated with gas production (r = 0.99; P< 0.05). A strong correlation (R2= 0.99; P< 0.05) was observed between measured in vitro gas production and that calculated from SCFA. The relationship between in vitro gas measured on incubation of browse leaves and that calculated from SCFA allows prediction of SCFA from gas production. The studies showed that the leaves of the browse forages had nutritive value and therefore, may serve as potential supplements for ruminants in Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to determine the feed value of an indigenous browse plants in Borno state of Nigeria. Sixteen bucks of mixed breeds (Borno white x Sokoto red) weighing on the average 12.19±0.31kg were divided into four groups with four animals per group. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the dietary treatments in a Complete Randomized Block Design. The diets compared were Acacianilotica, Balanites aegyptiaca, Khaya senegalensis and Ziziphus mauritiana. The results showed that the average daily gain (ADWG), average dry matter intake (ADMI), dry matter intake per metabolic weight (0.07 kg day, 641.37 kg day, 74.58 g day ) and feed conversion ratio (0.12) were significantly (P<0.05) better with111 animals on diet T (Ziziphus mauritiana). The result also revealed that T had the best in terms of feed cost per43kg gain (N60.49) and percent reduction in feed cost (N53.04%). From the results, it can be concluded that feeding of Ziziphus mauritiana to growing goats at 30% level of inclusion is beneficial.

##### Abstract
In an 8-week feeding trial, four broiler starter and finisher diets that contained 0, 10, 20 and 30% roasted fluted pumpkin pod husk waste meal were randomly assigned to a total of 144 broilers in a completely randomized design to assess their performance and carcass traits. The results showed that only the average liveweight and daily weight gain were significantly (Ppkin pod husk waste meal is adequate in broiler diets for enhanced growth performance and carcass yield.

#### Abstract

A feeding trial was conducted for a duration of eight weeks to assess the effect of substituting maize with biscuit waste meal (BWM) on the performance of 144 day old Anak 2000 broiler chickens. Four experimental broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated with diet 1 as the control. Diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 were formulated to contain BWM at 0, 25, 50 and 75 % replacement for maize. Chicks were randomly assigned to the four treatment diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) in a completely randomized design (CRD) and each treatment group contained three replicates with twelve chickens per replicate. Results on the growth performance revealed that average live weight, daily feed intake, daily weight, protein efficiency ratio and feed conversion ratio were significantly (p<0.05) better in birds fed 50 % BWM than those fed other dietary treatments. Carcass traits such as back and breast muscles as well as the relative weights of gizzard and kidney weight were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Cost of feed/kg weight gain and net profit were highest among birds fed 50 % BWM and least in 75 % BWM based diet. The results suggest that BWM can replace maize up to 50% inclusion level in broiler diet for optimum performance and good economic returns.

Abstract

Many developing countries exhibit considerable gender inequality in health, employment and education. These inequalities manifest in low resource control among women. This study examines the effects of the resource level on the technical efficiency of the women cocoa farmers in Oyo state, since increased production and productivity are direct consequence of production resulting from efficiency of input combination, given the available technology. Moreover, efficiency index is a factor that may determine involvement of women in agriculture since they have other occupational options. Data collected from 271 farmers in Oyo state in which 33 of them are female farmers, were analyzed using stochastic frontier production methodology to determine their technical efficiencies. The study shows that female farmers are 76% efficient, while male farmers are 81% efficient in the use of combination of their inputs. The difference in the technical efficiency of male and female farmers is due to their differences in resource levels, especially farm size, credit, education and experience, the study discovered that while farm size, credit, education and farming experience will enhance the efficiency of the women farmers; family size will increase inefficiency of the women farmers. Any step to increase the resource supplies to the female farmers will increase their efficiencies. It may therefore be necessary to liberalize land market, evolve loan scheme that will be mainly for women farmers. Mass literacy campaign should be more female focused. Promotion of effective modern contraceptive should also be encouraged among the rural women farmers in Oyo state to encourage family planning. All these steps will increase their participation in agriculture and the efficiency of their agriculture performance.

Abstract

Text messaging is the application of abridged morphological forms in order to communicate and it is one of the fastest means of communication since the emergence of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in the world. In text messaging, we apply innovative language forms with morpho-syntactic structures that have become acceptable since they are understood by the ‘texters’ (senders) and the ‘textees’ (receivers) of the message. There are applications of morphological strategies in the form of omissions, word order violations, contractions, abbreviations, acronyms, compounding, blending and lack of punctuation. All these characterize the morpho-syntactic elements in the Short Message Service (SMS) texts messages. However, there is no hard and fast rule with regards to the morphological choices in SMS. Texters use a combination of letters and numbers in their text messages and in some cases they use only numerals. The texters ignore the basic orthographic and syntactic rules of formal English Language syntax to suit the semantics of their message. This paper, therefore, examines the creative strategies of word formation found in the morphology and syntax of select SMS text messages marked out for this research. Our data was collected from select SMS of individual users and the service providers of GSM. Our thesis statement is that these morphological patterns as used in SMS are already becoming standardized forms being adopted by the Nigerian users of GSM.

#### Abstract

Kidnapping has become a lucrative venture in Nigeria in recent times. Kidnapping first attracted national attention on 26 February 2006 when Niger Delta militants kidnapped foreign oil workers to press home their demands. Kidnapping has since become ubiquitous, politicised, and commercialised. It has spread from the Niger Delta to virtually all nooks and crannies of the country. This study therefore, examines the good and evil of kidnapping in Nigeria from ethical and religious perspectives and identifies the factors encouraging the venture. The study uses available news reports as well as personal and neighborhood witnesses, in addition to the consultation of some related literature. Possible causes of kidnapping were identified in relation to economic and political motivations as well as conceiving kidnapping as an instrument of liberation struggle including failure of the government to provide basic amenities, unemployment, inefficiency and corrupt security system. The paper posits and recommends the need for inclusive governance whereby all segments of stakeholders have the benefit of empowerment and capacity building as opposed to the current practice of elitist governance including good parental upbringing of children, a reordering of our societal values, and provision of functional education among others.

Abstract

Religion can be the most powerful influence on the worldview, values, attitudes, motivations, decision, and behavior of individuals, groups and societies for better and worse. Religions are alternative ways of affording nature various cultural, moral, and spiritual meanings, and defining the place of humans in the nature including how they should act toward non-human beings and other phenomena. The literature on religious violence in Nigeria largely implicates socio-economic, political and governance deficits as the major causes of such violence. This article focuses on both positive and negative impacts of religion in Nigeria with a view to finding out its far-reaching effects on the Nigerian society and its politics. The theoretically identified possible destructive elements of religion on the individuals and by extension on the Nigerian society and the politics of the day thereby eroding the peace and harmony needed to forge ahead on national development. To achieve the laudable objectives of this paper the writers adopt the descriptive, historical and the narrative methodology. Possible remedies to surmount this monster against human and national peace are suggested and conclusion drawn on findings.

#### Abstract

Inter-religious relations imply possible and practicable cordial relationship that exists between religions in a society. Its instrument is interfaith dialogue aimed at cordiality, togetherness, tolerance and acceptance that will be the true sign of a new era in the religious history of humanity. On both international and national levels, attempts have been and are still being made to establish dialogue or good relations between Muslims and Christians with a view to avoiding the  mistakes of the past, and creating a better world, and a better Nigeria for the present and future generations. The paper explores the remote and possible causes of the present  widespread problems in Christians and Muslims relations in Nigeria; and to reflect on the possible impact on the Nigerian nationhood. Basic findings of this study show that Nigeria.s stability, democracy, and national cohesion are threatened by extremism and conflict arising from Islamic and  Christian fundamentalism is believed to be predicated on the Nigerian political and economic malaise and social dislocation of recent decades. The paper recommends and concludes that all religious adherents must embrace Inter-religious dialogue which demands religions nurture, faith,  trust, dialogue, communication,  reconciliation, and mutual understanding of one another thus guaranteeing communal good for Nigerians.

Abstract

Of the several ethnic groups in Nigeria and among the Edo people for which we are primarily concerned in this paper, traditions occupy the apogee of their mores. And folksongs are principal part of oral traditions. While little has been done on the use of folksongs as historical data, few attempts in this similar direction are perfunctorily handled. This study therefore examines five folksongs from Edo speaking Nigeria as data for historical reconstruction. In doing this, the researchers corroborated the validity of the selected songs with the available treatises, traditions and literature in Edo nation.

ABSTRACT

Knowledge is often likened to weather conditions that pay no heed to national boundaries. This opinion has led many African scholars into using the same instruments to gauge issues in African and non-African studies expecting to get similar results. In this study, the researchers reveal that dance without music is unthinkable in Nigeria. Using specific examples and field observations, they reveal that such ideals are of non-African origin, which should not be encouraged to overlap in a culture with already defined musical functions, roles and characteristics.

ABSTRACT

This paper reviewed the anthropomorphic attributes of musical instruments in Africa. It proceeded to discuss the concepts and historical origin. In the course of this research, the instrumental resources, and ritual consecration of the instruments were seen to be strong factors for their attributes. The paper concludes by revealing the use of the anthropomorphism in the traditional Esan society.

Abstract

This study is essentially a referential guide which explores simply, the titles of doctoral degrees in music acquired by Nigerians in the last two decades. It presents a diary of the areas of specialisations of their holders. To this effect, doctorate degree titles in music
were collected. The study revealed that there are more ethnomusicologists than music educators, composers, performers, popular music studies, music media and music therapy practitioners presently in Nigeria based on the titles of the theses collected. In reaction to this, it is suggested, among other things, that stake holders should explore other avenues such as workshops and master classes to serve as an initial proactive forum where these palpable lapses will be redressed.

Abstract

This paper examines the present state of music therapy in Nigeria. In doing this, it discusses music therapy, the scope of operation and competence of the therapists, their trainings and dispositions. In the same vein, it examines the critical needs of the Nigerian music therapist in consonance with the people‟s beliefs. As a result of this, it advocates that the training of Nigerian music therapists should incorporate cultural realities of the people; that researchesshould be intensified, taken to higher heights; and that for their activities to be felt in Nigeria, they must function under a known and registered body. Whether music can really heal is not in doubt but convincing strides should be taken demonstrate it.

Abstract

This study investigates the life and times of Atine Obetoh Amojo Amen-Niyeye). It examines the musical creativity of this personage. This research benefits from a vast aggregate of inputs from Amojo’s siblings and his first son, Lucky Obetoh. We also harvested some remaining members of the group for their opinions on certain issues raised in this article. These were done basically through historical and analytical methods – interviews, focused group discussions, review of audio clips and of related literature. From this study, one could vividly see that Amojo remains an enigmatic giant in Esan minstrelsy whose creative ingenuity is yet unsurpassed.

#### Abstract

Oguega is a divination apparatus which is in common use among Esan people of Edo State, Nigeria.  Oguega diviners are consulted irrespective of religious leanings in this culture. The use of this divination apparatus is concomitant with exclamations, songs, narratives, chants and poetry. This study investigates a handful of its poetry and discusses them as they relate to contemporary tendencies and dynamics in this culture. This paper employs a mixed method approach in eliciting information from three diviners each from the five local government areas in Esan. Although Oguega terms are esoteric, one notices that the poetry which goes with the codified language is worth examining so as to emplace its relevance in contemporary scholarship. It is thus thought that a study of this sort is likely to enrich studies on the connection between the indigenous and the modern in African studies.

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to find out the possibility of a unique pattern of palm and finger prints (Dermatoglyphics)
among 192 adults (96 males and 96 females) of Esan origin who, at the time of this study, were residing in Esan-land
-the central senatorial district of Edo state, Nigeria. The subjects were selected via multi-stage sampling technique
and fingerprint determination was performed using the Indian ink methods. Palm and fingerprints were observed for
the angles connecting the triradii at the roots of the fingers (a-index finger, b-middle finger, c-ring finger d-small
finger and t-the most proximal triradii in the palm) taken as atd, tad and tda angles. The data collected were
statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) using the student t-test, chi square test
and ANOVA as statistical tools. Results showed that the loop pattern had the highest frequency (61.7%) followed by
whorl (24.9%), arch (12.8%) and double whorl (0.6%). The mean atd angles were 43.49 for males and 44.02 for
females; tad angles were 75.11 for males and 74.71 % for females; and tda were 61.22% for males and 61.35%
females. These reveals that the pattern of finger prints distribution were similar for both sexes except that the males
had more arches on the right hand (53%) than the females with more arches on the left hand (57.1%).

ABSTRACT

The paper influence of teachers‟ age, marital status and gender on the academic achievement of secondary school students in English Language as a subject was the focus of the study. The population for the study was the 304 public senior secondary schools in the three senatorial districts of Edo State, Nigeria. The proportionate sampling technique was well to select 52 senior secondary schools. 52 senior secondary final year (SS III) English language teachers and their 1,689 students consisted the sample for the study. Instruments used for the study are the English Language Teachers‟ Age, Marital Status and Gender Questionnaire (ELTAMGQ) and the English Language Achievement Test (ELAT). Data was collected and analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and t-test. Alfa level set at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that students‟ academic achievement is significantly influenced by teachers‟ age, marital status whereas, teachers‟ gender did not have a significant influence on students‟ academic achievement.

Background: Vernoniaamygdalina and Ocimumgratissimumare widely used plants in the tropics. The leaves of these plants are popularly acclaimed to have medicinal values, with scarce information on the effect of graded extracts in mediating oxidative stress. The interest on these leaves derives from the need to have an insight to the possible effect of thesegraded leaves extracts may have on oxidative stress. Objectives: The objective of the study was to examine the effect of graded extracts of Vernoniaamygdalina and Ocimumgratissimum leaves specifically on free radical inhibition, reducing power and lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidneys. Methods: The leave samples were collected and air dried, homogenized and sieved to obtain particle sizes of ≤ 0.250mm. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of samples were obtained and used to assay for total alkaloid and phenolic contents, free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the extent of lipid peroxidationin liver and kidneys were determined, using standard analytical assays. Results: Phenolic contents of both leave extracts were higher in aqueous medium vernoniaamygdalina (0.85 ± 0.07mgGAE/g) and Ocimum gratissimum (1.59 ± 0.13mgGAE/g). The alkaloid contents of the leaves were higher in methanolic extracts, with Ocimumgratissimum highest (0.96 ± 0.04μg/g) and vernoniaamygdalina (0.38 ± 0.01μg/g). The reducing power of these leaves increased with increasing extract concentrations. Ocimumgratissimum had the highest reducing power in both methanolic (3.00 O.D) and aqueous (2.82 O.D) medium in comparison with respective butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) (2.49 O.D) and ascorbic acid (2.16 O.D) controls. The ability to scavenge free radicals increased with increasing extract concentrations in both leaves with highest percentages in aqueous extracts.Ocimum gratissimum(95.90%) and vernoniaamygdalina(98.80%) compared to control (100%).The leave extracts of both plants significantly (p<0.05) increased lipid peroxidations in liver and kidneys of rats. Conclusion:Fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimumand  vernonia amygdalinahave shown potentials to be valuable in reducing powers and free radical quenching.

To assess chloroquine and vitamin combination treatment on liver, kidney and heart muscles of malaria parasite challenged mice, in order to evaluate the influence of such treatment regime on the antioxidant status of these organs. Method: This study was a 5 by 10 model design, comprising of non-parasitized-nontreated (control), parasitized-non treated (PnT), parasitized chloroquine and ascorbic acid treated (Pcq+asT), parasitized chloroquine and folic acid treated (Pcq+faT) and parasitized chloroquine, ascorbic and folic acid treated (Pcq+asT+faT). Treatment of challenged animals was for three days after parasitemia was established with Gemsa stain. All biochemical indicators assayed for in this investigation were conducted using standard procedures. Result: Collated data shows that parasitemia and treatment regime had no significant (p<0.05) effect on heart tissues. Parasitemia in liver tissues caused significant (p>0.05) increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) in comparison with control and treatment of test groups showed significant (p>0.05) reduction in G6PD activity in comparison with control and PnT groups. In kidney tissues there were reductions (P<0.05) in GSH molecules in comparison with control and PnT. Conclusion: The treatment regime under this condition has the potential to induce high liver G6PD activity and a low GSH concentration in kidney tissues, with its attendant consequences.

The rising energy costs and carbon footprint of operating mobile telecommunication sites in the emerging world have increased research interests in green technology. The intermittent nature of most green energy sources creates the problem of designing the optimum configuration for a given location. This study presents the design analysis and control strategy for a cost effective and reliable operation of the hybrid green energy system (HGES) for GSM base transceiver station (BTS) sites in isolated regions. The design constrains the generation and distribution of power to reliably satisfy the energy demand while ensuring safe operation of the system. The overall process control applies the genetic algorithmbased technique for optimal techno-economic sizing of system’s components. The process simulation utilized meteorological data for 3 locations (Abuja, Benin City and Sokoto) with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Simulation results presented for green GSM BTS sites are discussed and compared with existing approaches.

This work reports an innovative design of tubular solar still with a rectangular basin for water desalination with flowing water and air over the cover. The daily distillate output of the system is increased by lowering the temperature of water flowing over it (top cover cooling arrangement). The fresh water production performance of this new still is observed in Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore (11 North, 77 East), India. The water production rate with no cooling flow was 2050 ml/day (410 ml/trough). However, with cooling air flow, production increased to 3050 ml/day, and with cooling water flow, it further increased to 5000 ml/day. Despite the increased cost of the water cooling system, the increased output resulted in the cost of distilled water being cut in roughly half. Diurnal variations of a few important parameters are observed during field experiments such as water temperature, cover temperature, air temperature, ambient temperature and distillate output.

The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and costeffective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system’s performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a
practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4 kWh/\$ of the proposed system would not  only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also
better the living standards of the host communities.

This study proposes a temperature-based model of monthly mean daily global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces for selected cities, representing the six geopolitical zones in N igeria. The modelling was based on linear regression theory and was computed using monthly mean daily data set for minimum and maximum ambient temperatures. The results of three statistical indicators: Mean Bias Error (MBE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and t-statistic (TS); performed on the model along with practical comparison of the estimated and observed data validate the excellent performance accuracy of the proposed model.

This study assessed the performance of six solar radiation models. The objective was to determine the most accurate model for estimating global solar radiation on a horizontal surface in Nigeria. Twenty-two years meteorological data sets collected from the Nigerian Meteorological agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for the three regions, covering the entire climatic zones in Nigeria were utilized for calibrating and validating the selected models for Nigeria. The accuracy and applicability of various models were determined for three locations (Abuja, Benin City, and Sokoto), which spread across Nigeria using seven viable statistical indices. This study found that the estimation results of considered models are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level, but their accuracy varies from one location to another. However, the multivariable regression relationship deduced in terms of sunshine ratio, air temperature ratio, maximum air temperature, and cloudiness performs better than other relationships. The multivariable relationship has the least root mean square error and mean absolute bias error, not exceeding 1.0854 and 0.8160 MJ m−2 day−1, respectively, and monthly relative percentage error in the range of ± 12% for the study areas.

The incidence of car theft in Nigeria has grown to nearly epidemic proportion. On daily basis, the numbers of stolen cars reported over the media are on the increase. Alarms and other deterrents are not enough. There is actually little one can do to prevent a car from being stolen. However, with a Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) activated automobile demobilizer with identification capability one can virtually take control of the virtually impossible incidence and hence increase the possibility of car recovery. This paper is aimed at implementing a security device capable of safeguarding cars from theft as well as provides picture and audio information of the culprits in an attempt to steal the car. To realize this work, use was made of a GSM phone

This work reports a new design of solar still with a hemispherical top cover for water desalination with and without flowing water over the cover. The daily distillate output of the system is increased by lowering the temperature of the cover by water flowing over it. The fresh water production performance of this new still was observed in Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore (11° North, 77° East), India. The efficiency was 34%, and increased to 42% with the top cover cooling effect. Diurnal variations of a few important parameters were observed during field experiments such as water temperature, cover temperature, air temperature, ambient temperature and distillate output. Solar radiation incident on a solar still is also discussed here.

This study investigates the effects of orientation of photovoltaic surface and proposes the optimum tilt angle for a photovoltaic array oriented due south in three cities in Nigeria (Abuja, Benin City and Katsina). Three optimization methods (monthly based, seasonal based and annual based) are implemented. The inclination of the surface is assumed to be varying from 0º to 90º with an increment of 1º, and the total global solar radiation on the tilted surface is estimated using the Hay-Davis-Klucher-Reindl (HDKR) Model. Analysis
indicates that the photovoltaic (PV) surface positioned at monthly optimized tilt angles will generate an increase exceeding 10% of its annual total irradiance.

ABSTRACT

The authors examined the policies and factors that have in the past and at the present precipitated student unrest in Nigerian university campuses. Predictions about the policies that are likely to produce student protest in Nigerian university campuses in the near future are advanced.

Aim: The effect of chloroquine, folic and ascorbic acid on malaria parasite induced oxidative stress was the focus of this study. The study relevance derives from the need to understand the specific roles of these individual organic acids used in combination with chloroquine. Study Design: The design involves five groups of control (non-parasitized-nontreated), parasitized nontreated (PnT), parasitized chloroquine and ascorbic acid treated (Pcq+asT), parasitized chloroquine and folic acid treated (Pcq+faT) and parasitized chloroquine, ascorbic and folic acid treated (Pcq+asT+faT). Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Ambrose Alli University (Faculty of Natural Sciences). This study is part of a research that lasted three years. Materials and Methods: Treatment regime was for three days after parasitemia in mice
was established with Gemsa stain. All biochemical and haematological parameters assayed for in this project were conducted using standard procedures. Result: Chloroquine and vitamin treatments significantly (P=.05) reduced erythrocyte fragility (EF), total bilirubin and increased packed cell volume (PCV) when compared with PnT parameters of mice. Treatments significantly (P=.05) increased serum albumin compared with control and had no effect on the serum albumin levels of PnT mice. Treatment with cq+asa and cq+as+fa resulted in significant (P=.05) oxidative stress in mice compared to control but reduced (P=.05) oxidative stress in comparison with PnT mice. Exceptionally, chloroquine and folic acid treatment did not show any significant change in oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in mice when compared with control. Conclusion: The results suggest chloroquine and folic acid treatment to be more effective
than ascorbic acid or other combination treatment employed in this study in the management of malaria induced oxidative stress.

The effect of Plasmodium berghei and folic acid treatments on mice was investigated. The study derives from the need to examine the possible role of folic acid treatment on erythrocyte fragility, packed cell volume (PCV), bilirubin, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in serum and some tissues of mice. Three groups of ten mice each categorized as non-parasitizednon-treated (control), parasitized-non-treated (PnT) and parasitized folic acid treated (P+faT) were used in this study. Results collected and analyzed using standard statistical tool revealed that treatment of parasitized mice with chloroquine and folic acid had significant (p<0.05) reductions in erythrocyte fragility, total bilirubin, total protein, serum and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, liver catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, but increased (p<0.05) packed cell volume (PCV) and serum CAT and SOD activities in comparison to parasitized non treated (PnT) mice, that had all assayed indices against those of control animals. From these observations, we conclude that under parasitized condition folic acid may efficiently reduce oxidative stress.

This work aimed at examining the effect of malaria parasites and ascorbic treatments in mice. Therelevance of this research derives from the desire to understand the role of ascorbic acid in malaria in fection. In this study design, three groups of ten mice each categorized as non-parasitized-non-treated (control), parasitized-non-treated (PnT) and parasitized ascorbic acid treated (P+asT) were used. Results collected and analyzed using adequate statistical software revealed that parasitism in mice had significant (p < 0.05) increases in erythrocyte fragility, total and indirect bilirubin, total protein and globulin but decreased (p < 0.05) mice packed cell volume (PCV). Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly (p < 0.05) increased while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased (p <0.05). Liver SOD and CAT as well as kidney MDA of parasitized non treated mice were observed to increase (p < 0.05) following plasmodium berghei infection. Ascorbic acid treatment of parasitized mice was observed to reverse the effects of berghei in mice. The findings suggest ascorbic acid to be critical in the management of malaria parasite infection.

This research was designed to access the effect of chloroquine a common antimalarial an dascorbic acid a popular antioxidant, on oxidative stress and liver function in animal models, with the aim of applying the research findings to the treatment of some devastating tropical diseases. A total of forty mice comprising of twenty males and females were divided into four groups per sex category and test drugs were administered intraperitoneally (ip) in mono and combined doses to healthy mice. Chloroquine treatment increased all oxidative stress indices with catalase being significant (P<0.05) against control. Significant increases (P<0.05) were also indicated in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and in catalase activities in both sexes. Ascorbic acid generally reduced all (P>0.05) assayed stress indices but the reduction was significant (P<0.05) only in female mice as against control. A combined treatment of chloroquine and ascorbic acid did not show any significant decrease and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and SOD, but catalase increased (P<0.05). Increases (P<0.05) were observed in SOD and catalase activities in both male and female mice. The activities of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined and confirmed using gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity and increases (P<0.05) in the activity of this enzyme were observed in female mice given a combination treatment. This result indicates that ascorbic acid can ameliorate oxidative stress induced during normal aerobic metabolism in mice. Chloroquine and a combination of chloroquine and ascorbic acid treatment can adversely affect GGT in female mice.

 The effect of malaria parasites and chloroquine in mice was examined. The importance of this study derives from the prevalence of malaria in the tropical and subtropical regions, as well as the declining therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine as a first line treatment against malaria infection in these endemic areas. This study aimed to determine the pattern of possible alterations in some haematological and antioxidant molecules in mice treated with either Plasmodium or chloroquine. Three groups of ten mice each categorized as control, non parasitized chloroquine treated (NPcqT) and Parasitized non treated (PnT) were used in this study. Observations from the work show that parasites in mice significantly (p<0.05) increased plasma total protein, globulin, erythrocyte fragility, total bilirubin, oxidative stress, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities. Also the study showed that there is a significant (p>0.05) decrease in plasma SOD, CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH), liver G6PD and GSH. Parasitemia also reduced significantly (p<0.05) mice packed cell volume (PCV). Chloroquine treatment of Non Parasitized (NP) mice increased significantly (p<0.05) erythrocyte fragility, plasma total bilirubin, oxidative stress, but reduced (p<0.05) mice PCV, plasma SOD, CAT, G6PD, GSH but increased (p<0.05) liver SOD, CAT and reduced GSH significantly (p<0.05). The results obtained from the statistical analysis of data suggest that both malaria parasites increase oxidative stress in mice and chloroquine increases SOD and CAT activity in hepatic tissue of mice. [Fulltext PDF]

This research was designed to determine some of the nutrient composition (%w/w) of the African black pear using standard procedures and the effect the seed extracts may have on some blood constituents of rats. The seeds of three types of African black pear categorized as Small (S), Medium (M) and Large (L) on the basis of their body weights were investigated. The seeds were found to vary significantly (p<0.05) in moisture, dry matter and in lipid contents among the three types. Total carbohydrates in the samples were high [(50.74±1.29) for S; (50.97±0.54) for M and (49.21±0.23) for L], but did not differ (p>0.05) from each type examined. Protein contents of the seeds were low [Small (3.80±0.11); Medium (3.67±0.06) and Large (3.64±0.08)], while starch contents in the three types of seeds under study were high [40.96±0.09; 40.88±0.05; 40.92±0.07 for Small, Medium and Large, respectively]. Aqueous extract of the seeds administered to rats reduced (p<0.05) white blood cells count to (1.14±0.01) x 10<sup>3</sup> mm<sup>-1</sup> from (4.65±0.43) x 10<sup>3</sup> mm<sup>-1</sup> (control). Ethanolic extract reduced (p<0.05) serum cholesterol level (50.10±4.50) mg L<sup>-1</sup> as against control (70.60±0.30) mg L<sup>-1</sup> and the group that received water extract (68.85±1.25) mg L<sup>-1</sup>. These novel findings suggest that the seeds of African black pear could be harnessed for their high starch content and cholesterol lowering potentials.

This study investigated the awareness and use of open access journals by LIS undergraduates in Ambrose Alli
University, Ekpoma. A descriptive survey research design was adopted and questionnaire was used for data collection.
The sample for the study was drawn from the population through simple Random sampling technique, and a total
sample size of 250 students was drawn from the total population of 620 students. A total of 213 copies of the
questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed with simple percentage, mean and standard deviation. Findings that there is a
low level of awareness of open access journals. The findings equally revealed that majority of the respondents are only
aware of African Journals Online (AJOL) among the list of open access journals and databases. It was discovered that
majority of the respondents use open access journals to a high extent for carrying out search for relevant literature for
project and seminars, downloading of articles, and searching of research topics/ideas. The major hindrances to use of
open access journals were found to be lack of internet search skills; and limited access to computer terminals.
Recommendations include that librarians, lecturers and others stakeholders in the faculty should intensify efforts in
creating awareness on the importance of open access publications.

The society we live in is in constant need of information to solve its problems. The library serves as the agency
responsible for the collecting, processing, managing and disseminating of this information in various formats to
meet the varying needs of the users. Information may be needed for education, entertainment, socio-cultural
development etc. It is therefore the duty of the librarian to ensure that there is availability and accessibility to the
required information whenever it is needed. This paper looks at the nature of libraries, the structures of libraries, the
literature of libraries and common problems plaguing the delivery of library services in Africa. In order for the
library to take its place in information management in Africa, several solutions were suggested. These solutions
include: increased funding, ICT skill acquisition, resource sharing and networking etc.

It is a fact that acquisition and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) contribute positively to effectiveness of academic libraries’ delivery of information services. The extent to which this is the case in Nigeria was interrogated in this study in order to justify the huge investment in ICT. Survey research design was adopted. The study population comprises professional librarians in academic libraries in Nigerian universities. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire complemented with interviews. A Total of 150 copies of the questionnaire were administered out of which 120 copies were retrieved giving 80.0% response rate. Analysis of the data collected was done using descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts, percentages and tables. Results shown that it librarians are aware of ICT tools and the benefits of using them. Irrespective of this none of the academic libraries in Nigerian universities have been able to maximized the benefits as due to the plethora of limiting factors such as internal politics (100%), epileptic power supply (100%) and lack of skilled systems analysts/engineers (91.7%) and inadequate funding (83.3%). Also revealed as a critical inhibitor to ICT acquisition and application in academic libraries is poor predisposition of the university librarians ICT projects as strongly agreed to by 85 (70.8%) respondents. The study however concluded on the note that ICT acquisition and application in academic libraries have the potential to offer innumerable benefits to the professionalization of librarianship in Nigeria through enhanced library operations and the provision of information services to library usersIt is a fact that acquisition and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) contribute positively to effectiveness of academic libraries’ delivery of information services. The extent to which this is the case in Nigeria was interrogated in this study in order to justify the huge investment in ICT. Survey research design was adopted. The study population comprises professional librarians in academic libraries in Nigerian universities. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire complemented with interviews. A Total of 150 copies of the questionnaire were administered out of which 120 copies were retrieved giving 80.0% response rate. Analysis of the data collected was done using descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts, percentages and tables. Results shown that it librarians are aware of ICT tools and the benefits of using them. Irrespective of this none of the academic libraries in Nigerian universities have been able to maximized the benefits as due to the plethora of limiting factors such as internal politics (100%), epileptic power supply (100%) and lack of skilled systems analysts/engineers (91.7%) and inadequate funding (83.3%). Also revealed as a critical inhibitor to ICT acquisition and application in academic libraries is poor predisposition of the university librarians ICT projects as strongly agreed to by 85 (70.8%) respondents. The study however concluded on the note that ICT acquisition and application in academic libraries have the potential to offer innumerable benefits to the professionalization of librarianship in Nigeria through enhanced library operations and the provision of information services to library users.

This study investigated effects of in-service training on effective classroom control and teachers’- students’
relationship in secondary schools in Edo State. A descriptive survey using an ex-post facto research design
was adopted. Stratified and simple sampling techniques were utilized to determine the sample size. The
respondents were two hundred and eighty (280) principals, vice principals and heads of department from
selected public secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District. The instrument for data collection was
a 10 item structured questionnaire. Data were collected and analysed using percentages and frequency
counts. The instrument for data collection was a 10 item structured questionnaire. The findings of the study
showed that in-service training has significantly affects effective classroom control and teachers’-students’
relationship. It was therefore recommended that in-service training should be regularly organized for
teachers in secondary schools.

This study investigated the relationship between principals’ leadership styles and secondary school
teachers’ job performance in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. A correlational design was
adopted for the study. Two adapted questionnaires titled “Principals’ Leadership Style Questionnaire”
(PLESQUE) and “Teachers’ Job Performance Questionnaire” (TEJOPAQ) were administered
to teachers and principals drawn from a population of 397 senior secondary school
teachers and 69 principals in the Senatorial District respectively. The Cronbach alphas for the
three sub-scales in PLESQUE were .710, .883 and .848 for democratic, autocratic and laissez-faire
leadership styles respectively, while the Cronbach alpha for TEJOPAQ was .882 for teachers’ job
performance. Percentages, multiple regression and Pearson product-moment correlation were
used to test the hypotheses at the .05 level of significance. Results showed that democratic,
autocratic and laissez-faire leadership styles jointly contributed about 68.3% variations in the job
performance of teachers, while democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles had the most prominent
positive influence on teachers’ job performance in the area of study. It was recommended,
amongst other things, that the use of a democratic leadership style should be encouraged among
the principals of senior secondary schools in the district.

The paper examined guidance and counselling profession in Nigeria, which is recognized to have existed in Nigeria since 1959. Against the backdrop of poor recognition of the profession in Nigeria, this paper examined the status of the profession and provided ways of making the field a recognizable height in Nigeria. Suggestions on how to address issues of certification, licensure, and continuing education among others, were provided

Bullying problem has remained pervasive and a going concern for all
stakeholders of education who desire to make school climate a safe haven. This paper is
moved by this desire, by bringing into context the meaning of bullying and prevalence of
bullying around the globe. The paper further brings into perspective bullying situation in
Nigeria and prescribes intervention for bullying prevention in schools. These include;
provision of helping services for schools; sensitization and capacity building of stakeholders
in bullying detection and prevention; implementation of bully buster programme; and
improvement of students’ level of compassion and empathy through empathy training.

This paper is premised on the fact that education is an instrument for social change. It is the only
known weapon that can combat poverty. In this regard, this paper examined the concepts of education and teaching,
the importance and the usefulness of teachers. It also provided strategies for making teachers more relevant in
teacher education and teaching profession. These strategies include: reviewing the existing teacher education programmes
to emphasize how to teach, which can be achieved by replacing the already existing six weeks teaching practice
exercise with internship of one- year duration. The paper further recommended the establishment of licensure and
credentialing board and the need to propose a bill before the National Assembly to regulate the practice of teaching.
In addition, the paper recommended the revision of the curricula of teacher education programmes in Nigerian
Universities or Colleges of Education, to align them with the mission and vision of the primary and secondary schools

This study investigated the job satisfaction among school counsellors in secondary schools
in mid-western Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. The participants
were 121 secondary school counsellors drawn from secondary schools in mid-western
Nigeria. A questionnaire titled “Counsellor’s Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (CJSQ)” was
used to collect data for this study. The results indicated that the majority of the secondary
school counselors are satisfied with their jobs. Also, promotion was the best single factorr
predicting job satisfaction. In addition, job dimension variables such as promotion, job
tenure, salary, social support and supervision significantly correlated with job satisfaction
among school counsellors. Based on these findings, it was recommended that school
counsellors’ job satisfaction could be further enhanced and sustained by government and
school administrators by paying adequate attention to the welfare of counsellors in terms
of regular promotion, enhanced remunerations, guaranteed job security, adequate social
support system and provision of well equipped counselling centres for counselling practice.

This study examined the influence of sex and class of secondary school students in experiencing emotional
abuse. For this purpose, a survey designed was adopted in the study. A total of 1537 students, drawn through
multistage proportionate sampling technique from all secondary school students in Edo state, participated in
the study. The instrument, a questionnaire entitled, “Classroom Emotional Abuse Scale” was used to collect
the data for this study. The results showed that male students experienced emotional abuse in the forms of
terrorizing, isolating, ignoring, and verbal assaulting more than their female counterparts. The results also
indicated that senior secondary school students experienced emotional abuse in the forms of dominating ( =
6.43, SD=1.93) and terrorizing ( = 6.40, SD=1.71) more than their junior secondary school counterparts in
terrorizing ( =6.16, SD=1.70) and dominating ( =6.00, 1.93). The study further revealed that junior secondary
school students experienced isolating ( =4.40, SD=1.60) as a form of emotional abuse more than their senior
secondary school counterparts ( =4.11, SD=1.42). Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that
teachers should mete equal treatment on students irrespective of their sex and class. In addition, internship
programmes should be organized for pre-service teachers, while ongoing professional development programme
should also be organized for in-service teachers to avoid emotionally abusive behaviour in the classroom which
will eventually lead to child-centred learning environment.

This paper deals with the understanding of metacognitive awareness among teachers. The concept of metacognition is
operationalized. This is followed by the essence of metacognition and learning. We move further to examine issues and
benefits of metacognition in the school system. To make metacognitive strategies an integral part of the school
curriculum, the paper proposes: (1) Specific metacognitive strategies in the classroom, and (2) deliberate school training
programmes on metacognitive instruction. The study concludes that both pre-service and in-service teachers should be
trained on general awareness of metacognition to enhance learners’ academic performance.

Acknowledging that the quality of education received in a given learning environment can be significantly parlayed by the quality of the policy that shapes and informs it, this paper discusses the processes of educational policy formulation in Nigeria. It observes that many of the selected approaches to educational policy formulation and reform hardly fit well with the specific policy instruments they were employed to evolve. It notes that for their incongruence they fail to capture and engage all the factors, influences and environmental nuances that converge to shape the policy instruments that emerge. In view of this, the paper proposes a new approach to evolving effective educational policy for meaningful educational reform in Nigeria. This approach, the paper contends must transcend the linear model of cause and effect or place and replace interventions. It then makes the proposal for the adoption of an approach to policy formulation wherein all intervening variables of policy determination are not merely observed but carefully and systematically engaged and appropriately integrated. In this way, the paper submits that an extensive elicitation of resources and an eclectic use of approaches should be the new pathway to policy formation in the Nigerian educational system.

This article takes a critical look at the issue of investment in human capital development. In so doing, it examines the link between greater investment in human capital development and the insurance of societal transformation, technological advancement, economic growth and sustainable development of the State. It does this through the prism of the propositions of one of the foremost and strongest advocates of investment in human capital development; viz, Theodore Schultz. In this way, it not only acknowledges the importance and linkages between investment in human capital development and economic growth and emancipation but also critically examines the nuances and salient questions that may arise in applying to the letter the call to invest in human capital development. To this effect, it offers suggestions on how these issues may be effectively engaged and curtailed for maximum accretion of the far reaching benefits of meaningful investment in human capital development.

This study examined the relationship between privileges enjoyed by teachers and their job performance in public secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District. The paper argues that non-monetary incentives such as participation at workshops, seminars, self development, supervision of external examinations and taking part in the decision making process enjoyed by teachers can motivate them to perform thereby boosting their performance. This study covered teachers in public secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District of Nigeria comprising of Esan West, Esan Central, Esan South East, Esan North East and Igueben Local Government Areas. The descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 164 teachers were sampled from a population of 820 teachers in all the public secondary schools in the Senatorial District using a random sampling technique. The instrument used in this study was a self designed questionnaire, entitled “Teacher’s Incentives and Job Performance Questionnaire” (TIJPQ). The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to test the hypothesis that was formulated. The findings revealed that a very low, insignificant relationship existed between privileges enjoyed by teachers and their job performance and it was recommended that workshops and seminars should be organized for the teachers for self improvement.

This paper examines the issue of developing indigenous Nigerian languages particularly Esan for effective
communication and professional use. The study adopted the survey research method while data collection was
done using the questionnaire and informal interviews. A sample size of 1500 respondents was purposively
selected from Esan people residents in their homeland. The findings show that 95.0% of the people could speak
the language fluently without similar proficiency in reading and writing while only 15.0% could read and write
scripts in Esan with a high level of proficiency. The dismal situation was adduced to attitudinal problem since the
people find it more prestigious and acceptable to speak and study English language being the language of the
elites. The paper recommends the teaching and learning of Esan in institutions of higher learning, training of
teachers and documentation of the language among others.

A survey study was carried out on the use of information resources and services in community public libraries in Nigeria with particular reference to Edo State. The study revealed that the majority of users were students and youths whose information needs were basically for examination and for personal enlightenment. The available resources in the libraries were found to be inadequate and in most cases, inappropriate. This situation was credited to poor funding of the libraries as well as to lack of local content in the collection of the public libraries. It was also revealed that the libraries lacked Internet facilities. In terms of service delivery, the libraries also lacked the capability and competence to provide translation services to the non-literate group of the communities.

The study investigated the influence of peer victimization on school attendance among senior secondary school students in Uromi metropolis. One research question and hypothesis was raised and formulated respectively to guide the study. Descriptive based on survey method was used as the research design of the study. The research participants were 589 public senior secondary school students drawn by simple random sampling from a population of eleven thousand, seven hundred and seventy (11,770) student in Uromi metropolis. The instruments used in this study were school attendance checklist and an adapted questionnaire titled: “Peer Victimization Questionnaire” with a reliability alpha (α) of 0.86 was completed by participants. Percentages and t-test statistical analysis was used to analyse the research question and test the hypothesis at 0.05 alpha level respectively. The result showed that there is no significant difference between victims and non-victims of drug abuse on their school attendance in the metropolis (p>0.05). The study therefore recommended that school anti-bullying rules and regulations must be strengthened and diligently enforced by the school authorities in the area.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14–item questionnaire showed that: four vital aspects of health observation (observation of mouth and teeth, nose and throat, skin, and ears) were not provided for the children; all aspects of health examination were not provided for the children; and records of the health histories of the children were not kept. These results were discussed and the study recommended that professional counselors be enlisted in the schools for a better management of school health services.

Abstract

This study investigated the relationship between parents’ occupation and students’ career aspiration in public secondary schools in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. The correlational research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 320 students was drawn for by simple random sampling technique from a population of 3272 senior secondary school students in the 16 public schools in the local government. A self-designed inventory titled: Students Career and Parent Occupational Inventory (SCAPOI) was designed using Holland’s (1985) work on six (6) personality types namely: Realistic (R); Investigative (I); Social (S); Artistic (A); Enterprising (E); and Conventional personality type (C). The Kendall’s tau-b rank correlation technique was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 20). Results showed that there is a significant relationship between parents’ career/occupation and students’ career aspiration in public secondary schools in Ekpoma metropolis (r=.943, p<0.01). Sequel to findings, it was recommended that parents should cautiously avoid the tendency of pushing their children into pursuing those ‘wishful heights’ in their careers that they were unable to attain in other to make them accomplish their ‘own failings’.

Purpose: The study surveyed the attitude towards ICTs and use of ICTs for service delivery by librarians in university libraries in Edo state
Design/Methodology/Approach: Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study comprised professional and para-professional librarians in Ambrose Alli University library, Benson Idahosa University library and John Harris library, university of Benin. The total enumeration sampling technique was used to select the whole 122 professional and para-professional librarians in the three libraries. Questionnaire was used to gather data for the study and the data collected were analyzed with the use of tables and percentages
Findings: The findings show that librarians majorly used computers (100%), Telephone (97%) and Printers (85.7%). The findings also show that majority (98%) of the respondents use the ICTs to assist researchers while 100% of them use ICTs in answering user queries. It was equally revealed that the librarians have positive attitude towards ICTs use. This is based on the fact that the respondents generally refused the negative attitude scale while they completely accepted the positive attitude scale. The major factors influencing the formation of the attitude towards ICTs by the librarians were found to be peer opinion (100%) and knowledge of available ICTs (97.6).
Implication: The conclusions of this study imply that utilization of ICTs depend greatly on the attitude of librarians towards ICTs. Where there is positive attitude utilization will increase but where there is negative attitude available ICTs will be underutilized. Hence, to improve utilization of available ICTs for service delivery, the attitude of librarians must be worked on through exposure and training in the use of emerging technologies.
Originality/Value: the originality of this study lies in the finding that ICT utilization depends on attitude of librarians and not just availability and accessibility.

The library is the heart and life-line of any citadel of learning. The quality of teaching, learning and research is
predicated on the robustness of the availability, accessibility and utilization of library and information resources.
These information resources only get to the library through collection development. Therefore, the quality of the
library depends on the quality of the collections. This study surveys the use of ICT in collection development in
academic libraries. The Covenant University library, Ota, was used for the study. The study adopted the descriptive
survey method. The questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The data collected was analyzed with
the use of tables and simple percentages. From the analysis of the data collected, it was found that the use of ICTs
help to save time in collection development, promotes quick delivery of information materials, enhances
communication with publishers and book vendors. It was also found from the study that, poor power supply and
inadequate infrastructure hinders the effective use of ICTs in collection development. It was recommended that
academic libraries should provide adequate funding for ICTs and the supporting infrastructure, training for librarians
was also suggested as well the use of online shops as sources of acquisition.

ABSTRACT The authors examined the policies and factors that have in the past and at the present precipitated
student unrest in Nigerian university campuses. Predictions about the policies that are likely to produce student
protest in Nigerian university campuses in the near future are advanced.

Abstract
This study investigates the factors that predisposed secondary school teachers to examination malpractice in Edo
State and how they rate these factors. The study participants were 988 teachers selected from 9885 teachers in
public and private secondary schools in the State. The descriptive (survey) design was used in the study because it
is a self-report research that would enable the researchers to collect data from teachers in order to determine their
predisposition to examination malpractice. A questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to collect the
needed data. The data collected was analyzed using percentages, mean and standard deviation. The findings of the
study revealed that anomie was a major significant variable that predisposed teachers to examination malpractice.
Other variables, though not significant, were societal/parental factor, teaching/learning environment, teacher
factor and student factor. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended, among others, that teacher training
programmes should be re-designed with more emphasis on civic and value education and that government should
improve on its funding in the education sector

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, uncontrolled hypertension is a serious prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal diseases. The current approach to the control of hypertension and its complications includes drug treatment of hypertensive patients and implementation of adequate lifestyle modifications (LMs) which are beneficial for non-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Practices of LMs are abysmally low in Nigeria.

Aim: This review aims to provide healthcare professionals with useful clinical information to guide their patient care promote the understanding of LMs and motivate hypertensive patients and the public to adopt and maintain multiple LMs.

Methodology: Manual literature and computer programmes (Cochrane Library, EMBASE, OVID, Pub Med, HINARI, Goggle Scholar etc) were searched for relevant information.

Results/Discussion: The search showed that LM practices such as regular physical activity/exercises, weight loss by the overweight or obese, reduced salt and increase potassium (K+) intake, adoption of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet (that emphasizes consumption of fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, reduced saturated fat and cholesterol), moderation in alcohol intake and cessation of smoking, have significant beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP). High religiosity or spirituality promotes cardiovascular health possibly by its preventive or prohibitive influence on lifestyle risk factors such as smoking and excessive alcohol drinking.

Abstract

Aims: To evaluate changes in electrolyte profiles during combination treatment with amlodipine (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) in hypertensive Nigerians.

Study Design: Randomized, open-label, prospective, two-centre, outpatient, 48-week study.

Methodology: We enrolled 90 male and female Nigerians aged 31-86 years with uncomplicated essential hypertension (blood pressure [BP] > 160/90 ≤ 180/120mmHg).

Patients, who were 30 each (15males [M] and 15females [F]) in AML, HCZ and AMLHCZ groups, were treated, respectively, with 5mg AML for 6 weeks (wks) and the dose increased to 10mg till wk 12 (monotherapy) after which HCZ 25mg was added; HCZ 25mg till wk 6 (monotherapy) after which AML 5-10mg was added; and AML 5-10mg + HCZ 25mg. Body mass index (BMI), BP, 24h urine volume, serum and urine electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-) were assessed at baseline and at the end of wks 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 during treatment.

Results: The 3 regimens comparably significantly (P= .05) reduced BP. Diuresis was greatest and significant (P= .05) in HCZ group. A time dependent significant (P< .0001) hyponatraemic changes were observed in all subgroups except AML M subgroup such that the mean maximum M/F decrease in AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ groups, respectively, were 5.07/14.74, 17.40/16.40 and 10.93/16.86 mmol/L. A parallel significant (P< .01) increase in urine Na+ was observed in all groups with maximum mean M/F increase in AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ groups being, respectively, 26.00/24.40, 28.07/40.94 and 30.47/27.67 mmol/L. A baseline hypokalaemia was observed in all groups except in the AML M subgroup. Significant (P< .0001) M/F hypokalaemic changes were 0.23/0.35, 0.76/0.53 and 0.18/0.19 mmol/L for AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ groups, respectively. Corresponding significant (P< .0001) M/F increase in urine K+ were 4.60/5.71, 10.67/18.60 and 8.2/9.3 mmol/L for AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ groups, respectively.

Significant (P= .05) disproportionate chloraemia was observed at baseline in all groups. The observed significant (P< .0001) M/F hypochloraemic changes in AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ groups were, respectively, 10.60/11.46, 25.60/26.94 and 22.93/17.67. A significant (P < .0001) parallel hyperchloriuria was evident in all groups and M/F values in AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ groups were, respectively, 8.09/6.46, 26.00/39.86 and 24.53/18.00 mmol/L.

Abstract

Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.

Abstract

Blacks respond to therapy with amlodipine (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) with greater diuresis and natriuresis than whites, a situation that may lead to prerenal azotaemia and other problems. Although AML and HCZ are frequently used as antihypertensive agents in Nigeria, the effects of the combination treatment on renal function has been poorly examined. Therefore, to evaluate the effects of dual treatment with these drugs on creatinine clearance (Clcr), we enrolled 90 Nigerians of both gender 31-86 years

with uncomplicated essential hypertension (blood pressure [BP] > 160/90 = 180/120 mmHg), into a randomized, open-label, prospective, two-centre, outpatient, 48-week study. Patients, who were 30 each (15 males (M) + 15 females (F)) in AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ groups, were treated, respectively, with AML 5mg for 6 weeks (wks) and the dose increased to 10mg till wk 12 (monotherapy) after which HCZ 25mg was added; HCZ 25mg till wk

6 (monotherapy) after which AML 5-10mg was added; and AML 5-10mg + HCZ 25mg. Body mass index (BMI), systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), 24hrs urine volume, urine creatinine, serum creatinine and the corresponding Clcr were evaluated at baseline before treatment and at the end of wks 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48

during treatment. The 3 treatment regimens comparably significantly (P < 0.05) reduced BP. At week 48 M vs F reductions in SBP/DBP in AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ groups were, respectively, 37.88±2.46/30.86±1.45 vs 37.75±2.15/31.76±1.86, 37.66±1.50/28.67±1.56 vs 34.43±1.57/27.34±1.92 and 33.00±3.05/30.33±1.55 vs 31.67±2.86/31.33±1.95 mmHg. Diuresis was greatest and significant (P < 0.05) in HCZ group at week 1 with M vs F AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ levels being, respectively, 1523.33±57.34 vs 1486.00±56.09, 1621.33±36.49 vs 1586.67±37.01 and 1506.00±42.26 vs 1514.67±45.30 ml. Gender effect on Clcr was significant, for M values, respectively, in AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ groups (114.27±4.40, 108.36±4.19, 111.13±3.02 ml/min) were higher than the corresponding F values (107.20±2.30, 105.80±2.94, 104.80±2.69 mil/min, P < 0.0001). Duration of

treatment effect was significant (P < 0.05) and while Clcr values appeared to increase in AML group, the reverse was the case in HCZ and AML-HCZ groups. However, changes in Clcr values were within normal range. It is concluded that long-term combination treatment with AML and HCZ does not cause clinically significant changes in Clcr; and also that it seems prudent to initiate treatment with AML to which HCZ is subsequently added instead of HCZ to which AML is later added or ab initio AML-HCZ combination.

ABSTRACT

Ketamine is widely used as a sole general anesthetic agent in Nigeria, although the data on its use and the associated side effects are scanty. This paper presents a case of priapism developed following intravenous ketamine anesthesia. Literature on complications of ketamine use is reviewed; the treatment of drug induced priapism is discussed and the need to be alert and cautious in the use of this drug as a single anesthetic agent is emphasized.

Abstract

Although the role of intravenous ketamine anaesthesia in the operating theatre setting is not well defined, it is still widely used as a general anaesthetic agent in most parts of Nigeria where the services of anaesthesiologists are scarce. This retrospective study was aimed to highlight the experience of intravenous ketamine use in a general practice hospital in Auchi, Nigeria. Case records of all patients who were operated using intravenous ketamine from January 1994 to January 2014 were retrieved and the relevant data extracted for the study. One thousand three hundred and seventy patients were operated, 463(33.8%) being major and 907(66.2%) being intermediate/minor operations. More females (725 [53.0%]) than males (645 [47.0%]) were operated. Transient elevation of blood pressure with mild tachycardia, postoperative disorientation and confusion, emergent delirium and priapism were the adverse effects observed in 31 patients. It is concluded that intravenous ketamine anaesthesia has high clinical efficacy and safety in these patients.

Abstract

Hypertension (htn) is an important public health challenge at Auchi Nigeria. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological survey was to determine hypertensive patients’ knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and life-style practices so as to optimize their health and treatment needs. We examined a cohort of 108 randomly selected hypertensive by means of a self-structured questionnaire and a detailed interview. Analysis was by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and chi-square of the GraphPad Prism software was used for significance tests at 0.05 level. More males 60 (55.6%) than females 48 (44.4%) were assessed. Their age range was 35 – 80 years (mean = 59.05 ± 9.06 years), the modal age group was 56 – 60 years (24.1%). Sixty-six respondents (61%) knew htn to be high blood

pressure (BP), 22 (20%) thought it meant excessive thinking and worrying while 57 (53%) claimed it was hereditary. Forty-three (40%) felt it was caused by malevolent spirits, 32 (30%) believed it was caused by bad food or poisoning. A few (18%) knew some risk factors. Symptoms attributed to htn were headache, restlessness, palpitation, excessive pulsation of the superficial temporal artery and “internal heat”, but 80 (74%) attested to its correct diagnosis by BP measurement. Although 98 (90.7%) felt the disease indicated serious morbidity, only 36 (33.3%) were adherent with treatment and fewer practiced life-style modification. Thirty-two (30%) knew at least one antihypertensive drug they use. Psychosocial factors like depression and anxiety, fear of addiction and intolerable drug adverse effects impacted negatively on patients’ attitude to treatment. We conclude that patients’ knowledge of htn in Auchi is low and their attitudes to treatment negative. Patient education, motivation and public enlightenment are imperative.

ABSTRACT

The Nigerian rural people demonstrate undesirable health-seeking behavior because of their cosmological and nosological notions which ascribe etiology of diseases and ill-health to entities far beyond the realm of the stethoscope. The present review is therefore solicited to enhance the health status of rural dwellers by providing potentially useful guidance that will enhance the knowledge of healthcare professionals with respect to the peculiar health-seeking behavior of rural dwellers so as to promote good patient-physician interaction and to provide empirical basis for rational health policy formulation. A manual literature and internet (Google, Medline, Embase, HINARI and Cochrane data bases) search showed that in a pluralistic medical milieu in which the rural dwellers find themselves, the decision to seek healthcare, where to do this and the form of care perceived as appropriate are all influenced by a multiplicity of factors relating to the person, the facility and the socio-cultural environment. Primarily, religious beliefs, use of Traditional African Medicine (TAM) and patients’ perception of reality influence health-seeking behavior. In order to adequately and

successfully manage the Nigerian rural patients, the healthcare provider must pay attention to patients’ impression of illness and underpinning health beliefs during consultation, in therapeutics and in handling evolving complications of TAM and ethical dilemmas. Improvement of rural infrastructure and behavioral health promotion campaigns among the rural people together with rational health policy formulation and regulation of TAM practice, are imperative.

Abstract

Although clinical trials are conducted far more ethically and safer now than they were some decades ago, the elimination of gross abuses has tended to highlight more subtle ethical problems. Therefore, research in man, especially clinical drug trials, must now take into account ethical and legal requirements. This review examines the progress of clinical trial ethics, highlights the major ethical principles and challenges involved in the conduct of clinical trials, and suggests measures to ensure scientifically and ethically sound clinical trials. An internet search and a perusal of the literature on the history of clinical trials, medical ethics and good clinical practice, reveal that apart from laying a general principle, the Oath of Hippocrates did not provide a guide on the specific ethical problems involved in undertaking research, an important arm of advancement in medical knowledge. Hence, to avert continued ethical abuses of subjects during clinical research, the current reference guideliNe--the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 (revised in 1975), was adopted by the World Medical Assembly. It emphasized four major principles: autonomy, nonmaleficience, beneficence and justice. In applying these principles, the researcher must obtain a written free and well informed consent from patients who should be aware of their right to withdraw from trial at any moment. Where possible, a new drug should always first be compared to placebo in order to prove its superiority. He must ethically monitor and assess risks and benefits of the trial throughout its duration and use a fair procedure in selecting research subjects and must respect the concept of inviolability of the human person. Ethical challenges confronting clinical trials include the appropriateness of the proposed research, obtaining free informed consent, use of medications after completion of drug trials, drug toxicities and long-term side effects as well as the release and publication of research result. To improve protection for research subjects and have ethically sound clinical trials, there is need to adhere to global standards and legislations; establish, strengthen and empower regulatory bodies; develop partnership among stakeholders; intensify public enlightenment and train research personnel.

Abstract

Information is inadequate on the serum and urine electrolyte profiles in Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension. We, therefore, measured the levels of Na+, K+ and Cl- in 40 adult Nigerians with untreated uncomplicated mild to moderate hypertension and compared these values with those obtained from age and sex-matched normotensives. Electrolytes were measured using ion-selective electrolyte analyzer. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 127.20 ± 4.20 mmHg in the hypertensives as compared to 92.27 ± 6.25 mmHg in the normotensives. Both groups of subjects had comparable weight and body mass indices. Results show that in the hypertensives serum, levels of Na+ (152.8 ± 2.14 mmol l-1) and Cl- (115.4 ± 2.62 mmol l-1) were significantly higher than in the normotensives (Na+: 136.0 ± 3.23; Cl-: 102.2 ± 2.52 mmol l-1). Serum K+ levels were significantly lower in the hypertensives than in the

normotensives (4.01 ± 0.08 vs 4.82 ± 0.03 mmol l-1). The hypertensives excreted more Na+ (300.9 ± 41.30 mmol l-1) and Cl- (278.6 ± 4.39 mmol l-1) than the normotensives (Na+: 147.10 ± 1.10, Cl-: 126.40 ± 1.51 mmol l-1). Urinary K+ level in the hypertensives was significantly higher than in the normotensives (73.70 ± 0.73 vs 55.60 ± 0.63 mmol l-1). We conclude that mild to moderately hypertensive Nigerians show significant differences in their levels of serum and urinary Na+, K+ and Cl- from their normotensive counterparts. The relatively higher serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations and the corresponding lower serum K+ may indicate their roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension in these patients.

Abstract

In order to evaluate whether amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide would be preferable to initiate therapy, 90 untreated hypertensive Nigerians of both genders aged 31–86 years with blood pressure >160/90 and _180/120 mm Hg were recruited into a randomized 48-week study. Patients, 30 each in amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide, and amlodipine–hydrochlorothiazide groups, were treated, respectively, with amlodipine 5 mg for 6 weeks and the dose increased to 10 mg till week 12, after which hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg was added; hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg till week 6, after which amlodipine 5–10 mg was added; and amlodipine 5–10 mg þ hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg. Body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, and 24-hour urine volume were evaluated at baseline and at the end of weeks 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48. The primary efficacy variables were decreased in mean trough sitting diastolic and systolic blood pressure such that blood pressure < 140/90mmHg was regarded as normalized. At week 48 in the amlodipine group, 27 patients versus 25 patients in the hydrochlorothiazide group had diastolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg (90% vs. 83.3%; P <.03). In the amlodipine group, 23 patients versus 20 patients in the hydrochlorothiazide group had blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg (76.7% vs. 66.7%; P <.01). In the amlodipine–hydrochlorothiazide group, 27 patients (90%) and 15 patients (50%) had diastolic blood pressure <90mmHg and blood pressure < 140/90mmHg, respectively. This study has demonstrated that a regimen of amlodipine to which hydrochlorothiazide is subsequently added provides superior efficacy on blood pressure control when compared with a regimen of hydrochlorothiazide to which amlodipine is subsequently added or with ab initio amlodipine–hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy.

Abstract

A rhotrix is a rhomboidal array of numbers. In many respects, rhotrices are similar to matrices, and matrices, though, are of both even and odd dimensions but only rhotrices of odd dimension are well-known in literature. Even dimensional rhotrix has not been discussed. Therefore, this article introduces rhotrices with even dimension. These rhotrices are a special type of rhotrix where the heart has been extracted. Analysis, examples and some properties of these even-dimensional (heartless) rhotrices are presented and established as algebraic structures, mathematically tractable, and as a contribution to the concept of rhotrix algebra.

Abstract

Hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide have been reported to alter the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and possibly the creatinine excretion by the kidneys. Also, therapy with these diuretics, especially in the elderly, can be complicated by volume depletion resulting in prerenal azotemia. Creatinine clearance (Clcr) is considered to be the most accurate test of renal function. Unfortunately, although these diuretics are widely used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure in the young and elderly Nigerians, their effects on renal function have been poorly investigated. We, therefore, evaluated the effects of treatment with 21-day single daily oral doses of 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide or 40 mg furosemide on Clcr in this prospective randomized study of forty Nigerians with mild to moderate uncomplicated essential hypertension (20 males and 20 females) 32 to 80 years of age and 40 age and sex-matched healthy normotensive controls while on their usual diet. Blood and 24 h urine specimens were collected at baseline and on days 7, 14 and 21. Specimens were assayed for creatinine and the corresponding Clcr for each day was calculated. Analysis of variance did not show a statistically significant effect of the diuretic regimens on Clcr over the period. This study demonstrates that single daily doses of either of these diuretics do not have a significant effect on Clcr over a short-term monotherapy.

Abstract

There is paucity of information regarding the effects of combination therapy with amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide on lipid profiles in hypertensive Nigerians. Therefore, to evaluate whether this combination therapy would ameliorate or aggravate the known metabolic adversity of hydrochlorothiazide on lipid parameters, 90 male and female Nigerians aged 31-86 years with newly diagnosed uncomplicated essential hypertension (blood pressure > 160/90 ≤ 180/120mmHg) were enrolled into a randomised 48-week study. Treatment was initiated in the patients, who were 30 each in amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide groups, with amlodipine 5mg, hydrochlorothiazide 25mg and amlodipine 5mg + hydrochlorothiazide 25mg, respectively. Body mass index, blood pressure and lipid profiles were evaluated at baseline as well as at the end of weeks 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48. The 3 regimens significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood pressure. At the end of week 48, mean male/female % significant decrease or increase in lipid parameters in amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide groups were, respectively: -4.3/-1.5, 2.8/3.7 and 2.6/2.5, p<0.0001 for total cholesterol; -7.2/-2.6, 5.3/5.6 and 6.6/6.2, p<0.0001 for triglyceride; 16.5/19.6, -12.0/-8.6 and -7.8/-8.4, p<0.0001 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol; -4.6/-3.0, 5.6/11.7 and 4.5/8.0, p<0.0001 for low density lipoprotein cholesterol. This study demonstrates that beyond reducing blood pressure, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy has varied effects on lipid panel and it also suggests that, with regard to cardiovascular risk profile, it may be preferable to initiate treatment with a regimen of amlodipine to which hydrochlorothiazide is subsequently added, instead of a regimen of hydrochlorothiazide to which amlodipine is later added or a regimen of ab initio amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy.

ABSTRACT

Although dog bites that result in human rabies constitute a serious public health hazard at Auchi, the prevalence and treatment outcome are unknown. Therefore, this 20-year retrospective study was aimed at determining the prevalence and treatment outcome of dog bite injuries using anti-rabies vaccine at Osigbemhe Hospital, Auchi. Case records of patients managed at the hospital between January 1994 and January 2014 with the diagnosis of dog bite and rabies were retrieved. Relevant clinical data were extracted. Forty seven patients presented with dog bite injuries including four clinical cases of human rabies who died. Mean age of victims of dog bite was 21.8±14.6 years and the range was 2-54 years. The majority (51.1%) were children (0-10) years. Males (63.8%) were more affected than females (36.2%). The lower limbs and trunk/buttocks injuries were significantly higher than other sites. Most injuries (33%) were high risk (type III). Bite wounds (91.5%) were washed with water as well as irrigated with saline and some (21%) were disinfected. Debridement and suturing were done in some cases (44.7%) and 91.5% received postexposure anti-rabies vaccine. Other medications including analgesics, antibiotics and intravenous fluids were administered as indicated. In conclusion, though the prevalence of dog bite injuries was low, the use of anti-rabies vaccine with demonstrated clinical efficacy, was high (91.5%). Improved surveillance, availability and affordability of vaccines for pre- and post- exposure prophylaxis as well as interventions to prevent dog bite related injuries, particularly among children, are imperative.

Abstract

Uncontrolled and irrational use, coupled with easy availability, low cost and the quick onset of drug action which relieves symptoms, have led to the widespread misuse and abuse of corticosteroids (CSs) by some healthcare professionals and many patients. The aim of this review, therefore, is to attempt a summary of the current use of CSs in Rheumatology. A manual literature and internet (Google, Medline, Embase, HINARI, Cochrane Database) search showed that CSs have a wide range of biological actions including anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They can improve the symptoms of patients with rheumatic diseases. They may also have a disease-modifying effect in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but they are not first-line treatment. Adverse effects (AEs) which may be many are related to the dose and duration of treatment. Patients should be aware of this and be prescribed the lowest effective dose and for the shortest time. Recent trials, utilizing novel chronotherapeutic modified-release (MR) Prednisone formulation given at bedtime, have demonstrated a clinically relevant decrease of morning-stiffness of the joints. Dissociated steroids or selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists (SEGRAs), that dissociate transrepression from transactivation, have shown promising results in collagen induced arthritis. The need of the hour is to strike a balance between CS efficacy and adverse effects while individualising treatment. Enlightenment of healthcare professionals and the public is imperative to guide against the inappropriate and injudicious use.

Abstract

There has been considerable confusion and concern among some practitioners and patients with regard to the prescription, abuse and adverse effects caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly gastrointestinal (GI) irritation and hemorrhage. The aim of this pharmacoepidemiological review therefore is to highlight the current prescription guidelines and prescribing precautions to prevent potential adverse effects. A manual literature and internet (Google, Medline, Embase, HINARI, Cochcrane Database) search showed that NSAIDs are commonly used but have risks associated with them, including significant upper GI bleeding. The elderly, patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and those on anticoagulants are at high risk. Although Aspirin is cardioprotective, other NSAIDs can aggravate congestive cardiac failure (CHF) and hypertension, and are associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events such as myocardial infaration (MI) and atrial fibrillation or flutter. Hepatic damage from NSAIDs is rare but these agents should not be used in patients with cirrhosis to avoid bleeding and renal failure. Caution should be exercised when prescribing NSAIDs for patients with platelet dysfunction, those taking anticoagulants and immediately before surgery. Potential central nervous system (CNS) effects include aseptic meningitis, psychosis and tinnitus. Asthma may be induced or exacerbated by NSAIDs. Though NSAIDs are likely safe in pregnancy, they should be avoided at the first trimester and in the last 6-8 weeks of pregnancy to prevent spontaneous abortion and prolonged gestation. Ibuprofen, Indometacin and Naproxen are safe in breast feeding women. Public enlightenment and patient education about correct dosing and NSAID overdosage, are imperative.

ABSTRACT

Combination therapy with antihypertensive drugs from different classes has been recommended as an effective strategy to attain blood pressure (BP) goal. Although amlodipine (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) are frequently used as combination therapy in Nigeria, information regarding the adverse events associated with this regimen is scarce. To evaluate the clinical adverse events profile associated with a regimen of AML and HCZ therapy for 48 weeks (wks) in hypertensive Nigerians. Methods: Ninety male (M) and female (F) Nigerians aged 31-86 years with newly diagnosed uncomplicated essential hypertension (BP > 160/90 ≤ 180/120 mmHg), were enrolled. Patients, who were 30 each (15 Ms and 15 Fs) in AML, HCZ and AML-HCZ groups, were treated, respectively, with AML 5mg for 6 wks and the dose increased to 10mg till wk 12 (end of monotherapy) after which HCZ 25mg was added; HCZ 25mg till wk 6 (end of monotherapy) after which AML 5-10mg was added as needed; and AML 5-10mg + HCZ 25mg. Body mass index (BMI), BP and heart rate (HR) were assessed at baseline and at the end of wks 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 during treatment. Adverse drug events were similarly monitored beginning from wk 1

ABSTRACT

Drug addiction, particularly among teenagers and young adults, has become a serious public health problem globally. Drugs with addictive potential include the non-therapeutic drugs that are licit/legal (caffeine, tobacco or nicotine, alcohol) and those that are illegal/illicit for common use such as benzodiazepines, amphetamines, cocaine and crack, heroin and cannabis. Worldwide, the challenge of cannabis abuse and addiction is particularly devastating, nay in Nigeria. Despite this ugly scenario, the use of cannabis continues unabated and its control remains enigmatic. The aim of the present review is to provide a contemporary comprehensible overview of exciting recent developments in the understanding of brain circuits related to the nature and effects of cannabis abuse and addiction as well as to highlight the current therapeutic approach to effective management. A thorough manual literature and internet (Medline and HINARI databases) search were conducted. It was found that recent advances in the neurobiology of drug abuse and addiction have led to the identification of neuronal substrates (eg dopamine, 5-hydroxyltrypytamine etc) as being responsible for the rewarding effects of cannabis and are also crucial to the addictive process/behaviour. There is increasing evidence that prolonged exposure to drugs of abuse including cannabis, produces long-lasting effects in cognitive and drug-rewarding brain circuits. Hence, addiction is now generally considered a chronic brain disease. Chronic use of cannabis impairs cognitive functions, perception, reaction time, learning, memory, concentration, social skills and control of emotions. There may also be panic reactions, hallucinations, paranoid states with fixed delusions and even acute psychosis. These impairments have obvious negative implications for the operation of a motor vehicle or machinery and performance at school or workplace as well as the development of a healthy family, a strong national economy and a secure society. Complications of use, including psychosis and withdrawal effects, can be treated. Psychosocial measures and rehabilitation, together with effective prevention initiatives are essential in the management of individuals with drug-related problems. Cannabis abuse and addiction is destructive and may affect all of our lives and the fabric of the society. The development of long-term management strategies based on medication, psychosocial support and continued monitoring as well as preventive initiatives to reduce risk factors and strengthen protective factors against drug abuse is a challenging clinical goal.

Abstract

The objective of this prospective, randomised, open, single-centre study was, therefore, to determine the antihypertensive and biochemical effects of 25 mg oral hydrochlorothiazide and 40 mg oral furosemide given once daily for 21 days to 40 patients with mild to moderate uncomplicated essential hypertension aged between 32 and 80 years and 40 age and sex-matched normotensive controls while on their usual diet. Urine volume, systolic and diastolic BP evaluated as Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) as well as urine and serum sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl) were assessed before and during treatment. Both drugs significantly increased diuresis (p< 0.0001); lowered MAP (p< 0.0001) and increased urine K+ (p< 0.001) in the hypertensive subjects compared to controls. It is concluded that once daily 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide and 40 mg of furosemide are effective in lowering BP as monotheraphy in Nigerians with mild to moderate hypertension and they are associated with some adverse biochemical effects including K+ depletion.

Abstract

Worldwide, antibiotics are among the most commonly used and misused drugs because of the perception in some practitioners and patients that antibiotic resistance is theoretical or only a minor risk. This review therefore aims to update knowledge and promote proper antibiotic prescription with the goal of optimizing use and halting the trend of rising resistance. A literature and internet (Medline, embase, HINARI and Cochrane data bases) search showed that prescription of antibiotics only when indicated following standard guidelines minimizes the incidence and spread of resistance. Mechanisms of resistance development include bacterial mutation or horizontal transfer from plasmids, transposons, integrons and gene cassettes between commensal organisms and potential pathogens by transduction, translocation, transposition, transformation or conjugation. Resistance may emerge following indiscriminate use of antibiotics, unhygienic conditions, poor drug handling and non-adherence. To halt resistance, priority areas include prudent use of antibiotics; development of antimicrobials with novel mechanisms of action; use of bioinformatics and genomic techniques to identify and study new targets of attack; use of alternatives to antibiotics such as bacteriophage-derived therapy or chemical agents that can block or reverse resistance pathways; use of agents in natural products, vaccines and pro-biotics as well as implementing public health strategies and education of the populace. In response, initiatives at the local, national and international levels are now directed towards promoting good antibiotic stewardship, infection control, sanitation and hygiene practices.

Abstract

Worldwide, antibiotics are among the most commonly used and misused drugs because of the perception in some practitioners and patients that antibiotic resistance is theoretical or only a minor risk. This review therefore aims to update knowledge and promote proper antibiotic prescription with the goal of optimizing use and halting the trend of rising resistance. A literature and internet (Medline, embase, HINARI and Cochrane data bases) search showed that prescription of antibiotics only when indicated following standard guidelines minimizes the incidence and spread of resistance. Mechanisms of resistance development include bacterial mutation or horizontal transfer from plasmids, transposons, integrons and gene cassettes between commensal organisms and potential pathogens by transduction, translocation, transposition, transformation or conjugation. Resistance may emerge following indiscriminate use of antibiotics, unhygienic conditions, poor drug handling and non-adherence. To halt resistance, priority areas include prudent use of antibiotics; development of antimicrobials with novel mechanisms of action; use of bioinformatics and genomic techniques to identify and study new targets of attack; use of alternatives to antibiotics such as bacteriophage-derived therapy or chemical agents that can block or reverse resistance pathways; use of agents in natural products, vaccines and pro-biotics as well as implementing public health strategies and education of the populace. In response, initiatives at the local, national and international levels are now directed towards promoting good antibiotic stewardship, infection control, sanitation and hygiene practices.

Abstract

Although, amlodipine (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) are recommended to initiate therapy in hypertensive patients, it has not been properly evaluated whether AML or HCZ would demonstrate a better adverse events profile. To determine whether AML or HCZ would be preferable to initiate antihypertensive treatment in type 2 diabetic Nigerians by comparing the adverse events profiles of the 2 drugs. Methods: Forty male (M) and female (F) newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects with controlled type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) aged 43-68 years were randomized to AML and HCZ treatment groups of 20 patients each (10 Ms, 10 Fs), and they were treated respectively, with AML 10mg and HCZ 25mg, both drugs being given once daily for 48 weeks. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each subject. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), 24h urine volume were assessed at baseline and at the end of weeks 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48. Adverse events profiles were also recorded from week 1 through 48. The drugs significantly reduced BP, though the effect of AML was significantly greater compared to that of HCZ (P<0.01). Diuresis was significant in HCZ group (P<0.01). There were 48 adverse events (48.5%) in the AML group including weight loss and mild tachycardia. No patient had peripheral pedal edema. Fifty one events (51.5%) occurred in HCZ group, weight loss, mild tachycardia, polyuria and myalgia/cramps being the commonest as well as impotence and visual disturbance. Though the two drugs appeared to be well tolerated, AML demonstrated a better BP-lowering effect and adverse events profile. Drugs that ensure adequate BP control and have the lowest possible risk for adverse events like AML, should be preferably used in diabetic Nigerian patients with essential hypertension.

Abstract

Although the association between antihypertensive therapy and lipid profiles is well established, there are very limited reports regarding the same in hypertensive Nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which treatment with amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide would affect lipid profiles. Forty newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 43-68 years were randomized to amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide treatment groups. Each group comprised 20 patients (20 males and 20 females) and they were treated, respectively, with amlodipine 10 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg, all given once daily for 48 weeks. Body mass index, blood pressure and lipid parameters were evaluated at baseline (week 0) before treatment as well as at the end of 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 weeks. The 2 medications significantly reduced blood pressure values, though the blood pressure-lowering effect of amlodipine was significantly greater compared with that of hydrochlorothiazide (P<0.01). Total cholesterol and triglyceride mean values were not significantly affected by drug treatment. Whereas amlodipine significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.0001) and significantly decreased low density lipoprotein cholesterol in males (P<0.001), hydrochlorothiazide did not cause any significant change in the variables. We observed that although both drugs significantly decreased blood pressure, hydrochlorothiazide may adversely affect serum lipid profile as compared with amlodipine that exerts a beneficial effect on it. Clinicians need to consider this in the choice of drug treatment.

Abstracts

Although antipsychotic drugs are known to have an array of adverse effects, they also exhibit significant differences in causing these effects. The atherogenic effects of clozapine and risperidone have not been fully investigated among schizophrenics in Nigeria hence this research work. This study therefore investigated the extent to which monotherapy with clozapine and risperidone (atypical antipsychotic drugs) influence lipid profile in patients with schizophrenia. The study population comprised 29 Schizophrenic patients from Psychiatric Hospital, Uselu, Benin city, Nigeria. They were placed on typical antipsychotics for six weeks: 10 patients were on risperidone (1-4 mg day-1 in divided doses) and 19 patients were on clozapine (25-300 mg day-1 in divided doses). The control group comprised 30 apparently healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected from all subjects on the first day before the commencement of treatment with antipsychotic drug and 24 h after the last administration of antipsychotics at the end of week 6 for analyses of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and very low density Lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) using standard methods. Comparing with the control, the basal serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL of the clozapine treated group were not significantly different except for HDL which was significantly reduced and the atherogenic indices (TC/HDL and LDL/HDL) which were significantly increased. However the risperidone treatment group showed significantly higher TC, TG, LDL and VLDL levels while HDL was significantly reduced. At the end of week 6, there was significant increase in serum TC, TG, HDL and VLDL and a significant decrease in HDL in both treatment groups compared to the control except VLDL that was not significantly different in the clozapine group. Comparing the two treatment groups, risperidone caused a more significant increase on lipid profile and atherogenic indeces than clozapine. This effect was about two times or greater with risperidone than clozapine. Conclusively, additional prospective clinical trials are required to support a specific therapeutic approach for managing dyslipidaemia that are present in clozapine and risperidone treated schizophrenic patients in an attempt to avoid its consequent adverse effects.

Present study investigates the viability of a photovoltaic-diesel-battery hybrid system for electricity generation in Nigeria. It aims to determine the economic, technical and environmental benefits of running a solar photovoltaic (PV) system in Nigeria climatic conditions. The solar irradiation for Abuja (latitude 9.08 °N and longitude 7.53 °E) and residential energy profile are used. The optimum size of the hybrid system is determined by making energy-balance calculations based on Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software. The impact of interest rate and cost of PV system on the optimum configuration is investigated. Sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the annual average solar irradiation based on solar radiation map of Nigeria and diesel price to determine the viability for other locations. Results showed that the use of PV-diesel-battery system in Nigeria can bring benefits of cost saving and emission reduction without compromising the reliability. However, the range of economic benefits depends on the site meteorology, which varies from 21 to 61%.

This paper examines the viability of a grid-connected hybrid energy system (HES) for domestic electricity generation in the developing world. It aims to determine the techno-economic benefits of operating a wind energy conversion system. The HES consists of the grid power supply, wind energy conversion, power electronics, and storage units. The grid supply unit incorporates a probability-based prediction technique. The wind energy system modelling is based on the piecewise third order polynomial, using wind turbine power profile supplied by the manufacturer. The formulated optimization problem was solved using a hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Pattern
Search (h-GAPS) technique. The h-GAPS based approach constrains the generation and distribution of power to ensure efficient operation. Analysis performed for a typical residential area used meteorological data for six sites, which spread across Nigeria. Results showed that the proposed power system could bring benefits of cost saving and improve power reliability, but the range of financial benefits depends on the geographical coordinates. In particular, 10kW/5.40kWh capacity wind/battery system installed in Sokoto can deal with 95.4% of the total electricity demand, save more than 77% of electricity payments and increase the reliability by approximately 140%.

This study presents the optimum size of a hybrid energy system for reliable operation of automated teller machines (ATMs). The aim is to identify a configuration among a set of power generation options that can reliably satisfy the electrical power consumption requirements of a remote load at the lowest energy cost, taking into consideration the availability and dynamic nature of energy sources. Three primary energy sources (solar, wind and diesel) are considered. The optimum design configuration is determined by making energy balance calculations based on HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable) software. Simulations are carried out for a one-year period, using long-term meteorological data and load profile of a typical ATM installation for Ekpoma, located (latitude 6.75oN, longitude 6.13oE) in the southern part of Nigeria. Simulation results show that the optimum design configurations consist of 5 kW wind turbine generator, 12 kW photovoltaic arrays and 81 kWh battery bank for study location. A more reliable and less expensive operations of ATMs would not only improve the quality of banking services, but will also reduce emissions of CO2 and other harmful gasses from ATM installation sites in Nigeria by approximately 95.7% thereby making the environment much more friendly and safe.

ABSTRACT

Incidence of child labour among secondary school students in Benin Metropolis of Edo state Nigeria was investigated. The study adopted the survey design. A total of 755 students participated in the study. The questionnaire titled Child Labour and School Attendance Inventory was used to gather data for this study. Results indicated among others as follows: 278 respondents representing 36.8% were engaged in at least one form of child labour. Of these, 197 (70.86 %) of them are involved in domestic servitude; 46 (16.55%) of them are involved in hawking and the remaining 35 (12.59%) of them are involved in both hawking and domestic servitude. Based on the findings, it is strongly recommended that governments should enact laws to protect the rights of the child and there should also be public enlightenment, which can be carried out through the media, rallies and workshops to save this generation of the upsurge of child labour.

Abstract

The Universal Basic Education (UBE) scheme, which came into existence in September 1999, was lauded by the Federal Government of Nigeria as a preferred programme of Nigeria’s basic education service. It is expected to provide full and compulsory education from primary one all through to junior secondary school 3 (that is nine years of compulsory schooling). This paper discussed ways in which Universal Basic Education (UBE) could be successfully implemented in order to attain national integration and development. The review of relevant literature shows that lack of resources and political manipulation of programmes are the two critical problems that could hamper a successful implementation of UBE. To get the dividends of Education For All (EFA) by 2015, we need the services of school counsellors in order to be able to implement the UBE programmes successfully. The paper thus recommended that the three-tiers of government local, state, and federal must utilise the services of school counsellors in order to successfully implement the scheme in Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

The authors examined the policies and factors that have in the past and at the present precipitated student unrest in Nigerian university campuses. Predictions about the policies that are likely to produce student protest in Nigerian university campuses in the near future are advanced.

Abstract

This study investigates the factors that predisposed secondary school teachers to examination malpractice in Edo State and how they rate these factors. The study participants were 988 teachers selected from 9885 teachers in public and private secondary schools in the State. The descriptive (survey) design was used in the study because it is a self-report research that would enable the researchers to collect data from teachers in order to determine their predisposition to examination malpractice. A questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to collect the needed data. The data collected was analyzed using percentages, mean and standard deviation. The findings of the study revealed that anomie was a major significant variable that predisposed teachers to examination malpractice. Other variables, though not significant, were societal/parental factor, teaching/learning environment, teacher factor and student factor. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended, among others, that teacher training programmes should be re-designed with more emphasis on civic and value education and that government should improve on its funding in the education sector.

Abstract

Most African countries are said to be unintergrated and that their main problem to stable democratic governance, and economic development is the intergration of their peoples and good governance. They are un-integrated because of the internal colonization of some ethnic nationalities by some others during the indigenous state formation process; and their external colonization by the Arabs and Europeans. As the colonization processes did not respect ethnic differences in Africa but super-imposing some ethnic nationalities over others, most African countries became multi-ethnic on independence. The need for the dividends of democracy (good governance, political stability and economic development) within the various ethnic nationalities in the same country has further complicated the problems posed by the multiplicity of ethnic groups, absence of intergration and super-imposition of some ethnic nationalities over others, thereby giving rise to a search for local and natural identity (“national identity” and “autonomy”) by the various ethnic nationalities that feel dominated, humiliated and marginalised by the colonization processes. The search for “national identity” and “autonomy” now challenges the legitimacies of the governments and the very existence of the states as these searches are in the forms of armed struggles, formation of ethnic armies or militias, religious and ethnic conflicts, and terrorism. These contradictions can only be resolved through a discussion of the “national question” in the various countries. This paper therefore examines the issues of national intergration, national identity; and the national question in Nigeria and the problems they posed to national security and stable democratic governance in the country.

ABSTRACT

This study sought to examine the perceptions of staff on the extent to which ethics can serve as instruments of restraint against corruption in Nigeria tertiary institutions. The institutions studied were Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, University of Benin, Benin City and Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, all in Edo State, Nigeria. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was the method adopted. Evidences were generated from two groups in each of the institutions. It was found in relation to the institutions studied that: (1) Ethics is still relevant in checking corruption. (2) The dominant members of the discussants had no prior knowledge of ethics. (3) The dominant section of the discussants believe that ethics can be a more effective check on corruption than other types of ethics in Nigeria. (4) Faith based organizations in Nigeria themselves have been infiltrated by corruption. (5) Between the academic and non-academic discussants, one section accused the other as being more corrupt than itself.

ABSTRACT

This paper is a report of the study conducted on Ambrose Alli University students coping mechanism in the Nigerian economic challenges. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was the method adopted. Nine faculties of the University were covered in the study. The study found that the students were adequately aware of the causes of Nigerian economic down-turn and had a clear picture of how they were affected by the economic challenges. The reported coping mechanisms were reprioritization of their consumption pattern, participating in income generating works like sale and repair of GSM materials, trading, body care, entertainment and farming. Prominent among their reported works was engagement in building activities, areas that had become very lucrative as a result of exodus of non-students workers in the area to the less lucrative commercial motorcycle operation.

ABSTRACT

Information and communication technology was recently introduced into teaching and learning of business education in Nigeria universities. The researchers discussed the various components of business education in Nigerian universities, explained various authors perception of ICT innovation into teaching of business education in Nigeria universities. Also discussed were the benefits of ICT innovation, problems associated with utilization of ICT in Nigeria, ICTs innovation and economic activity, international implication of use of ICT as well as international implication of use of ICT in trade. The paper uses historical survey in analyzing and
evaluating the views of various authors in an attempt to inform researchers, business educators, and scholars on current reasoning on the issue of ICT innovation in business education in Nigeria etc. Conclusion and recommendations were made such as Nigeria government should embrace ICT innovation into her economy growth rather than oil drive economy.

Abstract
This paper discusses the language as a tool for fostering entrepreneurship and business education, the origin of office
technology and management education, industrial revolution as entrepreneur engine, panacea for economic growth. In
addition, it discussed the reasons why most entrepreneurs fail in business, entrepreneurship as a means of reducing poverty,
Self employment as quickest way out of poverty and various types of business ideas. The paper uses historical survey in
analyzing and evaluating the views of various authors in an attempt to inform researchers, business educators, and scholars on
current reasoning on the issue of entrepreneurship in office technology and management education and English language as a
panacea for economic growth in Nigeria etc. Conclusion and recommendations were made.

Abstract
This paper studies business education and human resource capital development through a historical survey based on the works of various academic experts. The authors explain what human capital development and business education entails and reveals the importance of human capital development as well as problems faced in human resource capital development. It also addresses an aspect of human capital development that is not always addressed in business education – the area of conflict resolution between management and employees. This paper uses a historical survey to analyze and evaluate the views of various experts in an attempt to inform and advance the knowledge base of business educators, researchers and scholars on current practices and future prospects in human capital development.

Abstract: This paper is aimed to critically x-ray the business education curriculum of Nigerian Universities
a case study of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma and Delta State U niversity, Abraka. It w as observed that in
Ambrose Alli University business education is housed in the department of Vocational and Technical Education
with two options namely Accounting Education and Secretarial Education while it runs a specialized system
right from 100 to 400 levels. On the other hand the Delta State University runs a 100 to 200 levels broad based
system. Specialization is done in 300 and 400 levels. Here business education is a unit of its own; housing
accounting option, secretarial option, management option, but unfortunately computer education options is not
functional. It was observed that the objectives, philosophy and admission requirements of both universities are
the same. While courses offered are different in nature. Conclusion and recommendations were made.

The paper discusses the possibility of e-teaching and e-learning for professional business
communication in Nigerian universities, specifically: the meaning of e-learning, challenges of
e-learning, and obstacles to e-teaching and e-learning for professional business communication.
In addition, the paper discusses e-learning effectiveness and ICT applications for teaching and
learning, activity theory, needs assessment, subject matter, and communication tools. A literature
search revealed that professional business communication could be taught through e-learning, and
this study documents many challenges and recommendations to handle those challenges. For
example, there should be a portable electrical generator to back up and substitute for failure of
electricity. The government should assist by reducing the high cost of hardware in Nigeria. The
government should also reduce import tariffs. Teaching how to use computers should be
inculcated into the curriculum of both secondary schools and tertiary institutions. And all
institutions in Nigeria should be connected to internet

Abstract: This paper tries to examine the business education and seven-point agenda of Nigerian President
Musa Umaru Yar’ Adua to ascertain the success or failure. But at the final analysis, it reveals that President
Yar’ Adua has a good plan for the nation but for the fact that Nigeria factor has lived with us for so long, it will
be an unrealistic task for him to accomplish all, more so when considering the fact that he has eventually spent
half of his tenure and there is nothing as much to show for the full implementation of his seven point agenda.
If he is fortuned and God’s permit, the seven points agenda may be accomplished during his second tenure.
Because right now, eventually there seems to be no much significance difference between now and 29th May,
2007 he took over and the present economic situation in Nigeria. No success is achieved in the area of
electricity, education, roads, employment and even security. How then could we have accepted that success is
achieved?

Abstract
This paper discusses the effective communication skills, basics in internal organizational communication, and
common causes of problems in internal communication. Downward and upward communication. It’s also
discussed how professional business communication aids each leadership style; who is a leader. The paper uses
historical survey in analyzing and evaluating the views of various authors in an attempt to inform researchers,
business educators, scholars on current reasoning on the issue of effects of professional leadership style on
communication in business education in Nigeria etc. Conclusion and recommendations such as before
communicating, the leader must consider what he/she want to communicate, he/she must hold regular meeting
with the staff etc were made.

The researchers tried to ascertain the role of vocational and technical education in the Nigeria economic development using historical survey in analyzing the views of various academic authors in an attempt to inform researchers’ on current issues on the field. The research reveals that there was a defect in the curriculum of vocational and technical education programmes in Nigeria. The role of Vocational and Technical Education in the production of skilled manpower cannot be achieved if an efficient and effective teaching and examination is not maintained. No nation can develop without vocational and technical education. The solution to the economic development is total commitment to accepting vocational and technical education in Nigeria. Vocational and Technical Education graduates are not given proper training, therefore, are unable to be engaged in the area of maintenance of roads, pipe water, electricity, refineries, improving the food supplies etc. Conclusion and recommendations were made.
Introduction

Abstract: This study tried to examine the problems that are associated with vocational choices of secondary
school student. The research revealed that secondary school students are faced with choosing a vocation right
from the colonial master to date in our educational system. The research also represents there are so many
factors that are responsible for this, among which are parents, teachers, peer groups and subject study.
Conclusion and recommendations were however made such as get information about job descriptions and
requirements, Get information about salary and working conditions, Get information about the education and
training requirements and source for information about the labor market, including industrial occupational trend.
That parent must not force their children to choose a vocation. A student must not choose a vocation because
he or she sees his or her friends choosing the vocation. A student must choose a vocation where he or she has
intellectual, ability, aptitudes, and interest.

Abstract: This paper is aimed at trying to explain w ho a business educator supervisor is and his functions. The
research therefore, reveals the business education supervisor functions such as he corrects, directs, teaches,
demonstrates, assisting in teaching techniques, conferring with teachers, assisting in processing of evaluating
and examination and revising curriculum and courses of study, holding conferences or group meeting to discuss
problems, attending local, state, regional and national professional conventions. It also reveals the problems
of business education supervisors. Conclusion and recommendations were made.

Abstract
This paper discusses the effects of strike on the academic performance of business education students in Nigerian Universities. It also discussed the labour disputes and their settlement recorded strikes, 1960-77, academic staff union of universities history and struggles, the effects of academic staff union of universities strikes on business education students as well as possible remedy. This paper uses historical survey in evaluating the views of various scholars in an attempt to inform researchers, business educators, scholars on current reasoning on the issue of effects of strike on the academic performance of business education students in Nigerian Universities. Conclusion and recommendations such as a matter of policy the executives and legislators of both Federal and States should have their children in public universities in Nigeria, both federal and state governments should always respect the agreed negotiated agreement between them and the Academic staff Union of Universities to avoid incessant strike actions etc. were made.

The researchers empirically investigated the perceptions of Business Education Students on the
relevance of Entrepreneurship Education at the Colleges of Education in Edo State, Nigeria. The
main purpose of this research was to find out the perceptions of Business Education students on the
relevance of Entrepreneurship Education. In order to empirically investigate this study, the researchers
raised three (3) research questions and one (1) hypothesis. Related literatures were reviewed and the
Entrepreneurial Event Model (EEM) developed by Shapero and Sokol in 1982 was adapted as the
conceptual framework for the study. The framework showed at a glance the various stages and
processes that eventually climaxed into business formation. The survey design was used in the study.
Eight hundred and ten (810) Business Education students from both Colleges of Education in the
state formed the population of the study out of which a sample size of one hundred and sixty two
(162) students was selected using the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. The
instrument used was the questionnaire titled: Business Education Students’ Perceptions of
Entrepreneurship Education Questionnaire (BESPEEQ) and it was divided into two sections – A
and B. Section A consisted of the demographic information of the respondents while section B consisted
of thirteen (13) opinion statements structured in 4-point rating scale. The instrument was validated
by three (3) experts and the test re-test method of reliability was used in obtaining reliability coefficient
of 0.78. The instrument was administered to the respondents with the help of research
assistants and the data collated was subjected to statistical analyses. The descriptive and inferential
statistical tools were used in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that entrepreneurship
education has relevance in entrepreneurship. It also revealed that skills and Entrepreneurship
Education have influence on economic development; and that there was no significant difference
between the perceptions of male and female business education students on the relevance of
entrepreneurship education. One of the recommendations advanced by the researchers was that there
should be conscious efforts by educators to properly transmit the entrepreneurial skills to the learners
with ease.

This research paper specifically investigated Business Education students’ evaluation of the benefits and
challenges confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme (SIWES) in Edo and Delta States. Two
research questions were raised to guide the study and were answered descriptively. The descriptive survey
research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study comprised 941 Business Education
students and the proportionate stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting a sample size of
188 Business Education students for the study. The instrument used was the structured questionnaire and it was
validated by experts in the field. The test re-test method of reliability was used in ascertaining the reliability of
the instrument and it yielded a co-efficient of 0.87. The mean and standard deviation were used in analyzing the
data collated and some of the findings include: SIWES has great benefit especially in equipping Business
education students with skills and that funding is a major challenge confronting SIWES. One of the major
recommendations advanced in this paper was that there should be more funding of the scheme by the
government in order for it to be more effective.

This research paper specifically investigated Business Education students’ assessment of the effectiveness of Students Industrial Works Experience Scheme (SIWES) in Colleges of Education in Edo and Delta States. Two research questions were raised to guide the study and were answered descriptively. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study comprised 941 Business Education students and the proportionate stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting a sample size of 188 Business Education students for the study. The instrument used was the structured questionnaire and it was validated by experts. The test re-test method of reliability was used in ascertaining the reliability of the instrument and it yielded a co-efficient of 0.87. The mean and standard deviation were used in analyzing the data collated and some of the findings include: SIWES is effective in meeting work experience and that SIWES is not well managed by organizations. One of the major recommendations advanced in this paper was that Students’ Industrial Works Experience Scheme (SIWES) needs to be strengthened by all concerned stakeholder in order for its objectives to be realized

This paper investigated the concept of employability of Business Education graduates. Human Capital
Theory which was popularized by Schultz formed the theoretical framework for this study. The main
purpose of this work was to ascertain the mean ratings of employability skills possessed by Business
Education graduates. Four research questions were raised to guide the study and three hypotheses
were formulated. The case study research design was adopted for this study. The systematic random
sampling technique was used in selecting 60 respondents from the population of 130. The
questionnaire titled ‘Employability of Business Education Graduates Questionnaire (EBEGQ)’ was used
in eliciting information from the students. The researcher together with a research assistant
administered the instrument. The Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS), Mean, Standard
Deviation, t-test analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used in analyzing the data. One of the
findings is that Business Education graduates employability skills is high. A major recommendation
made was that shorthand and typing teachers should be encouraged to be more active in imparting
these skills.

This research paper is specifically prepared to examine the roles of Entrepreneurship Education in ensuring Economic empowerment and Development. The conceptual framework developed by Shapero and Sokol in 1982 was used in illustrating the series of stages and processes that eventually give birth to the formation of a business venture; and three (3) stages were identified in the model. The concept of Entrepreneurship education was briefly examined in relation to Economic Development. Economic Development was described as the quantitative and qualitative changes in the economy. The author briefly examined the concept of Entrepreneurship Education including its goals and objectives. A section was devoted to examining the roles of Entrepreneurship Education in ensuring economic empowerment and development in Nigeria. One of the major recommendations advanced in this paper was that Government should make accessible loans available for graduates of the programme so as to start up their businesses.

This research paper has specifically x-rayed the concept of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) and it
was defined as a business which is owned, led by one or a few persons, with direct owner(s) influence in
decision making, and having a relatively small share of the market and relatively low capital requirement. The
contributions of SMEs to the economy were examined in this paper. The problems confronting SMEs and the
possible strategies of combating the problems were also examined. A conceptual framework was developed by
the authors and it explains/illustrates the series of variables that are integral in the area of SMEs and the effects it
can possibly have on the economy. The concept of Economic Development was briefly described. A section was
devoted to examining the roles of SMEs for economic Development in Nigeria. One of the major
recommendations advanced in this paper was that the Government should urgently invest massively in
improving the current infrastructural base in the country.

M-learning in the teaching and learning of business education in Edo State. Two research
questions were raised to guide the study with one corresponding hypothesis formulated and
tested at 0.05 level of significance. The descriptive survey research design was adopted in the
study. A sample of one hundred and eleven (111) business education students was randomly
selected from the population of three hundred and seventy (370) final year (400 level)
students in University of Benin and Ambrose Alli University, Edo State. The structured
questionnaire titled: Utilization of M-learning in Business Education Questionnaire
(UMIBEQ) was developed by the researcher and was structured in a 4-point likert scale,
showing Very High Extent (4), High Extent (3), Low Extent (2) and Very Low Extent (1).The
instrument was validated by experts in the field and the crombach alpha was used in
obtaining a reliability coefficient of 0.74. The data that was collated was subjected to further
statistical analysis using Mean, Standard Deviation and the Independent Sample t-test. The
Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 was used for this purpose. The
findings revealed that business education students’ utilization of M-learning is high. It also
revealed that UTME and DIRECT entry business education students do not significantly
differ in their perceptions of M-learning utilization. One of the recommendations advanced
was that business education students should be encouraged to utilise their mobile devices in
productive ways.

This research paper specifically investigated the influence of teaching methods on the
implementation of the curriculum content of secretarial education in selected colleges of
education in south-south, Nigeria. One research question and a corresponding hypothesis
was formulated to be tested. The survey research design was adopted for this study. The
population of the study comprised 74 secretarial education teachers and they were used as
the sample for the study. The instrument used was the structured questionnaire and it was
validated by experts in the field. The test re-test method of reliability was used in
ascertaining the reliability of the instrument and it yielded a co-efficient of 0.82. The mean,
standard deviation and t-test were used in analyzing the data collated and some of the
findings include: teachers sometimes use the prescribed teaching methods. One of the major
recommendations advanced in this paper was that secretarial education teachers need a retraining
in the use of all teaching methods.

The researchers empirically investigated the perceptions of Business Education Students on the relevance of Entrepreneurship Education at the Colleges of Education in Edo State. In order to investigate this study, the researchers raised three (3) research questions and one hypothesis. Related literaturewas reviewed and the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EEM) developed by Shapero and Sokol in 1982 was adapted as the conceptual framework for the study. The framework showed at a glance the various stages and processes that eventually climaxed into business formation. The survey design was used in the study. Eight hundred and ten (810) Business Education students from both Colleges of Education in the state formed the population of the study out of which a sample size of one hundred and sixty two (162) students was selected using the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. The instrument used was the questionnaire titled: Business Education Students’ Perceptions of Entrepreneurship Education Questionnaire (BESPEEQ) and it was divided into two sections – A and B. Section A consist of the demographic information of the respondents while section B consist of thirteen (13) opinion statements structured in a 4-point rating scale. The instrument was validated by three (3) experts and the test re-test method of reliability was used in obtaining reliability co-efficient of 0.78. The instrument was administered to the respondents with the help of research assistants and the data collated was subjected to statistical analyses. The descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that entrepreneurial have relevance in entrepreneurship. It also revealed that skills and entrepreneurship education have influence on economic development; and that there was no significant difference between the perceptions of male and female business education students on the relevance of entrepreneurship Education. One of the recommendations advanced by the researchers was that there should be conscious efforts by educators to properly transmit the entrepreneurial skills to the learners with ease.

his paper is specifically prepared to examine the concept of stress management as an approach to ensuring high academic performance of Business Education students. A conceptual framework was developed be the authors in illustrating the inter-relationship that exist among the associated variables on stress. A brief history of the concept of stress was examined and the concept of stress was defined as the biological responses to events that threaten to overwhelm the individual capacity to cope satisfactorily in the environment; and the causes of stress(stressors) was equally examined. The various kinds of stress discussed in this paper includes: Eustress, distress, anticipatory, traumatic, acute, chronic, time, encounter and situational stress. The implication of stress on the academic performance was also of interest to us in this paper. Stress management was looked at and the common strategies of possibly managing stress were examined and they include: avoid the stressor, alter the stressor, adapt to the stressor and accept the stressor. The researchers equally advanced some recommendations among which are: Business Education students should learn to set up SMART goals and they should execute task based on their mental and physical capacities and abilities.

This paper presents the simulation and control of terminal voltage of solar panel. The simulation and control of the terminal voltages of solar panels were achieved using mathematical models and the best conditions of operation were also determined. A model that describes the variation of the terminal voltage with other parameters was developed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULNK programming software. The model was validated by comparing simulated results with already existing data sheet for the solar panel description used for this research. From the simulation results it was observed that the terminal voltage varies with the series resistance inversely. The result indicates that an increase in series resistance will cause a decrease in the terminal voltage. It was also observed that the terminal voltage of the solar module is directly proportional with the panel temperature. The voltage of a solar panel resulted to be inversely related to the average velocity of the wind around the panel. A simulation study was carried out by varying the wind around the panel from 0 to 100m/s and it was observed that the wind velocity is inversely proportional to the panel temperature, and hence inversely proportional to the terminal voltage. The number of cells used for the design is very much another important way to control the terminal voltage. The terminal voltage has a direct relationship with the number of connected series cells. The researchers recommend the implementation of a physical model for the control of terminal voltage in a solar panel using well designed microcontrollers and the mathematical modelling of solar arrays with parallel and series connected solar panels used in grid system power generation.

This research work presents the use of power factor correction method in reducing electrical energy losses in a power distribution network. Data were collected for the actual (active) energy (MW), the reactive energy (MVAR), the apparent energy (MVA) and the measured power factor for a period of seven months (July 2016 to January 2017) from the Yongxing Steel Factory distribution network. Based on the data analysis, it was observed that active power and the reactive power have close value while the corresponding apparent power values are different. The power drawn from the power distribution system are non-linear in nature throughout the month of July. The power system possesses different phase load, measured in amperes, such are phase A, phase B and phase C. The various phase loads followed the same pattern and the variation between the measured and calculated power factor values are presented. The percentage error correction coefficient was used to determine error and relationship between these two parameters measured and calculated power factor. The low power factors witnessed were less than 0.85. Low power factor result in higher reactive power (MVAR) usage in power consumption, leading to increases in electricity costs or increases billed demand. Deployment of power factor correction (capacitance bank) can eliminate higher billing rate related to reactive power consumption. The economic important and other benefits are highlighted in this study.

This paper examined the challenges of monopolised system of energy transmission in Nigeria. Electricity is an important factor in technological, economic and social development. Based on research and experience, the paper has x-rayed the common areas which Nigeria could use to improve its energy generation. These include solar electricity integration, sustainable renewable energy plan, and investment in research and development in renewable technologies. This paper recommends the needs to focus on diversification towards provision of reliable electricity, creation of wealth, jobs and steady power supply. The conclusion is that there is need for total willingness and cohesive commitment from Nigerian government towards effective power generation.

Security of a wireless sensor network is aimed at ensuring information conﬁdentiality, authentication, integrity, availability and freshness is an important factor considering the criticality of the information being relayed. Hence, the need for an intrusion detection/prevention system. Conventional intrusion avoidance measures, such as encryption and authentication are not sufficient because they become useless in the event of a sensor node being compromised, hence, can only be seen as a first line of defence in the network after which intrusion detection schemes follow. In this paper, two layers trust-based intrusion detection system was developed for wireless sensor networks. A trust-based model is presented to detect intrusions to the network. Scenarios were created by using different set of weights. By injecting 2%, 5% and 10% malicious nodes from the 100 nodes considered, the results obtained were carefully observed. For scenario 2 (S2) with 2% and 5% malicious nodes injected, the model achieved the best result in all cases with an average detection accuracy of 97.8% while scenario 3 (S3) with 10% of malicious nodes introduced recorded the best performance with an average accuracy of 96%. Hence, the model will be suitable with combination of weights in S2 with small networks but when the scale of the network increases, the set of weights in S3 are best with the model.

This paper presents the evaluation of the earthing system of the distribution substations in Ekpoma, Nigeria. The earthing resistance of each substations was tested and most of the substations facilities earthing resistance were measured using insulation resistance tester. The data of all transformers in Ekpoma town were collated and each substation earthing resistance calculated. It was discovered that transmission and distribution lines were in a rather poor state with bad fittings and some of the substations lightening arresters were observed broken, feeder pillars also condemned, almost all the low voltage side (415V lines) to the end users at each of the relief substations has no multiple earthing on the neutral to protect against lightening strokes. However, earthing resistance values varies with the time of the year; it is high during the dry season and low during raining season. The value of the earth resistance depends largely on the type and resistivity of soil. The minimum earth resistance of 2.0 ohms below was used as a standard to evaluate the earthing resistances of each of the substations.

Early detection of ailment or diseases in human has called for smart intelligence system healthcare development. Some of the major problems that both populated and less populated countries are facing is the difficulties in early ailment detection and treatment of ill health people. This is due to minimal number of medical expertise and resources available in various hospitals which leads to spending of huge affluence of their resources to meet those challenges, but still demanding for adequate medical services provisions. Therefore, this paper proposed a medical expert system for early detection of hypertensive patient, ailment diagnosis and characterisation with medical advice based on decision-making. The developed medical expert system is proficient, accurate and avoid time-waste in patient diagnosis with adequate professional advice on the ailments.

In a research done amongst commercial fishermen in Agenebode (Lat. 7.11oN, 6.69oE), the problem low back pain is significant in the fishing business. Research information is scarce on the investigation of the ergonomic stress of professional fishing. Moreover, there is no prior analysis, which investigates the relationship between low back stress (LBS) and low back pain (LBP) in fishing activities. This paper aims to measure the LBS during the gillnet and commercial crab fishing activities as well as to verify the correlation between the low back pain occurrences and those stresses reported in study of Agenebode commercial fishermen during the period (April 2017 – July 2017). A sample of 30 commercial fishermen considered in this study were exposed to LBS and the frequency of the fishing activities was assessed using questionnaire with crab pot and gillnet fishermen. The occurrence rate ratios (RR, 95% CI) of low back pain, which interrupted fishing, exposed to the high LBS and self-reported task was modelled on the basis of the multivariate generalised Poisson regression. It was observed that increased rates of low back pain correlates with the percent of time fishermen were exposed to discomforted postures. Handling of heavy loads during the loading and unloading activities generated lifting indices and high compression values, but with little overall work time (<15%). The results establish that neither ergonomic measure nor fishing task frequency alone can accurately predict LBP. Conversely, ageing, history of the LBP and self-selection out of tasks, perhaps, are significant factors that contributes to the LBS and outcomes observed

This paper presents the empirical modelling and investigation of solar panel tilt angle analysis. The aim is to determine the best suitable tilt angle for harvesting the optimal voltage from the solar panel system. Mono-crystalline solar panel with 220W was used to determine the output voltage from the solar panel, along with range of angles measured in degree (from 180 to 90) with responding time in hours (from 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.) towards the East and West hemispherical directions at Ekpoma. The experiment was carried out for duration of one year at Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma (latitude 6.750N and longitude 6.070E).The highest output voltage from solar panel was obtained at 1.00 p.m. for the study location while the total output voltage (2745.32V) obtained from west hemisphere direction was higher than the voltage (2709.06V) obtained from the East hemispherical direction. The best tilt angle suitable for optimal voltage harvest is 10 degree. Based on the empirical model deduced, it was observed that the output daily voltage at constant angle exhibits a polynomial distribution pattern with the least error value of 0.269.

This paper presents a research work that was carried out to resolve challenges of traffic light system. This work employs the use of a microcontroller, an inductive loop which acts as the vehicle detector and LED’s (light emitting diodes) for simulating the red, yellow and green light in a traffic light. The inductive loop is embedded in pavement along the road which senses the presence of vehicle. When a vehicle passes across the loop, the magnetic field changes and the inductance of the coil is decreased resulting in a frequency change of the oscillator which is detected by the controller. The interrupt is set to make the traffic light allow the movement of vehicles on the lane with many vehicles on it according to information on the counter. This means that when the system discovers the  lane with many vehicles by the number on the counter, the interrupt function comes into operation by interrupting the counting process and allowing the system to allow movement in that lane. Then the system resumes back to counting after this process is done. The test results show that the system can be physically and successfully implemented.

This paper highlights the implementation of an embedded microcontroller-based intrusion detection system. The PIC16F84A microcontroller embedded in the system was programmed using the MikroC Language for the microcontrollers, to pick up an intrusion signal from the motion sensor, (which interprets the signal to be an electrical signal e.g. voltage), process it and then give a command to the display or output units. The output includes a 16x2 ALPHA liquid crystal display (LCD) and a buzzer (alarm unit), which in turn implement the command thereby notifying the environment of the presence of an intruder by displaying “Intruder Detected!” on the LCD and by a beeping sound with an interval of 0.5s delay by the alarm unit. The system was tested and was found to be efficient and suitable for solving myriad of security issues that confront us in modern times.

The impacts of weather and environmental conditions on mobile communication signals were determined in this study. A Glo mobile communication network operating in the 900MHz band was considered. The Glo fixed base transceiver station (BTS) location at Gloworld in Benin City was considered. A frequency-signal tracker software, version 2.5.1 was installed and configured into a notebook Intel palm top, relative parameters data were obtained from 200 meters from the Glo BTS from 28th of July to 31st of August 2016, with data obtained hourly. Morning, afternoon and evening, and dry weather, fog weather and raining conditions was based on the statistical central tendency parameters. The average refractivity gradient observed was -61.3 N/km. It was observed that dry weather, signal strength variation was within 32 dBm, fog, variation was within 34 dBm range, while the variation of rain was within 38 dBm range indicating higher variation. It was observed that the more the mobile station move away from the BTS the higher the signal loss and that temperature and refractivity gradient has 0.50 and 0.42  positive correlations. In addition, relative humidity and pressure possesses negative correlations of -0.50 and -0.44 respectively.

This study proposes a multivariable model of monthly mean daily diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surfaces for three cities (Abuja, Benin City and Katsina), in Nigeria. The estimation was based on a correlation between clearance index and diffuse to global solar radiation ratio and was computed using monthly mean daily data set for global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces. The predictive efficiency of the proposed model was compared with the observed values and those believed to be universally applicable. The results suggest that the existing methods could be replaced by the developed model for a diffuse solar radiation data generation scheme.

The aim of this paper is the design and realisation of an automated library system using biometric technology. The personnel at the circulation desk (entrance) of the library desires to either confirm or ascertain the identity of the person requesting service in the library. Currently, most libraries use identity cards, including photo-based, smart card based for this purpose. With the proposed authentication scheme it is possible to confirm or establish an individual’s identity based on the fingerprint rather than by what one remembers (e.g., a password); hence, the authentication system is able to ensure that the rendered services are accessed only by a valid user, and not by any other person. The automated library system is designed based on the client/server architecture with the web structured as a 3-tier application. The front end aspect (first tier) of the automated library system was developed using Microsoft Visual Studio. The middleware engine uses dynamic web content technology (hypertext preprocessor, Java Server Page, Active Server Page) while the backend was designed using MySQL server application, thus all the data for the user authentication software are stored in the MySQL database. The performance under test was found to be satisfactory when compared with the traditional verification/authentication technique

The growing anxiety on the negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment and the global emission reduction targets call for a more extensive use of renewable energy alternatives. Efficient solar energy utilization is an essential solution to the high atmospheric
pollution caused by fossil fuel combustion. Global solar radiation (GSR) data, which are useful for the design and evaluation of solar energy conversion system, are not measured at the forty-five meteorological stations in Nigeria. The dearth of the measured solar radiation data calls for accurate estimation. This study proposed a temperature-based linear regression, for predicting the monthly average daily GSR on horizontal surfaces, at Warri (latitude 5.02˚N and longitude 7.88˚E) an oil city located in the south-south geopolitical zone, in Nigeria. The proposed model is analyzed based on five statistical indicators (coefficient of correlation, coefficient of determination, mean bias error, root mean square error, and t-statistic), and compared with the existing sunshine-based model for the same study. The results indicate that the proposed temperature-based linear regression model could replace the existing sunshine-based model for generating global solar radiation data.

The goal of the green-mobile technology is to attain negligible anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (from the GSM base station generators), which constitute by far the largest part of the emissions of greenhouse gases, thereby making the environment much more friendly and safe. This study established the effect of altitude on the output power of wind turbine generators, and proposed a robust model to account for this effect for optimal sizing of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for green-mobile applications. The proposed model implementation used a perfectly fitted polynomial expression derived from the manufacturer’s power profile. Adjustment of the observed mean wind speed data to a 75 m lattice tower of a mobile station indicates that the proposed model can be effectively powered by mean wind speed for three different locations (Abuja, Benin City, and Katsina) in Nigeria. Analysis indicates that WECS, with its turbine placed at an altitude of 100 m, loses approximately 1% of its output power.

A mathematical approach to obtaining closed formula for generating functions of a system’s content from which most important performance measures are derived. The derivation of such generating functions was based on Queuing Theory (QT), as a means of analyzing the performance of communication systems for effective data transmission, while asymptotic approximation a standard result in the Theory of Large Deviation (TLD) in the analysis of broadband networks and linearization of their boundaries was adopted due to high transmission rates and stringent Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees of modern systems. The numerical results of the analysis is satisfactory, a confirmation of the validity of derived performance measures.

A detailed analysis of two well-known analytical models, the kinetic battery model and the diffusion model is presented which reveals that the kinetic battery model is a first-order approximation of the more complex diffusion model; both models are well suited for battery life time predictions. In order to optimize their storage capacity, super capacitors are introduced to the renewable energy system which creates a voltage source control that dictates the frequency and AC voltage in the system and mainly responds to sudden energy unbalances while a current source control receives control input from SC voltage difference and mitigates the error-signal in order to fulfill the necessary energy demand on the system.

This study presents an in-depth analysis and evaluation of the amount of voltage drops in houses along selected streets in Benin City, which was restricted to Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN). The study embraced the readings of the transformer supplied voltage, house-to-house received voltage, currents, power consumption in each house using clip-on metre, while the distance of each house from the transformer supplying, the street was obtained using measuring tape. The results obtained shows that if consumers are to receive a reasonable supplied voltage for efficient operation of their appliances the distance of the consumer’s service cable at the farthest end from the transformer should not exceed 400m.

This study presents a web-based information technology that allows students to access departmental information and resource materials spontaneously, share academic ideas with their global counterpart as well as safeguard confidential documents to avoid indiscriminate alteration. The web enabled front page was designed using Microsoft Frontpage in conjunction with Java Script, MySQL and PHP, while mono-alphabetic substitution and a highly programmed corrupt pages were used as a security measure in order to safeguard sensitive information from unauthorised users thereby making the design simple. The design implemented at Westfield Christian College to meet the learning, writing and research needs of students and staff has considerably improve academic performance and has enabled users to share knowledge in straightforward and popular platforms.

This study proposes an optimal control law for a linear constant energy renewal multivariable system supplying power to protection and signaling circuits for switchgears and substation operations. The energy storage mechanism creates a control source that dictates the frequency of the pow er supply voltage. The entire analysis was based essentially on the use of a vector of inputs and outputs, and a matrix of operations characterizing the storage mechanism, assuming the system is both controllable and observable under arbitrary state feedback. The property of the output regulator which was desirable from the view point of feedback control design was clarified.

This paper aims to investigate the effect of STATCOM on the Nigerian 330kV transmission network. The Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm was used to solve the non-linear problem, which was modelled using MATLAB Software. The result shows that some of the buses fell outside the statutory limit of 0.95pu ≤ V ≤ 1.05pu, which includes: 16 (Kano, 0.8721pu), 17 (Kaduna, 0.9046pu), 18 (Jos, 0.8731pu), 19 (Gombe, 0.8735pu), 20 (Yola, 0.8580) and 21 (Katampe, 0.9167pu). On incorporating STATCOM on these weak buses. The voltage magnitude was improved as follows: 16 (Kano, 1.0000pu), 17 (Kaduna, 0.9678), 18 (Jos, 1.0000pu), 19 (Gombe, 1.0188pu), 20 (Yola, 1.0106pu) and 21 (Katampe, 1.0000pu). The improvement of the bus voltage profiles, ranging from 7% at Kaduna (bus 17) to 17.8% at Yola (bus 20), with the proposed STATCOM enables the voltage profiles to fall within the acceptable statutory limits. The result of this simulation shows the effectiveness of the STATCOM in improving the bus voltages of the Nigerian 330kV transmission grid.

This paper x-rayed the fundamental issues in the management of secondary education in Nigeria. It sought to examine the roles of government, teachers, school heads and provision of infrastructural facilities in the management of secondary education in Nigeria. Because a well-focused and defined pattern of educational system that is all embracing that is fashioned and well-developed can lead to goal actualization; considering the fact that whenever developed minds talk about development in the society, they also talk about the role of education and training in building people’s productive capacities to stimulate, strengthen, spread and sustained growth. Therefore, viable suggestions were made with a view to sustaining and enhancing qualitative secondary education, believing that all the stakeholders in education will synergize efforts to curb the menaces of decadent issues in educational management.

The focus of this paper is on the place of school heads in effective management of school climate in Edo state, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and ten (110) respondents (school Heads) randomly drawn participated in the study. Two (2) research question and two (2) null hypotheses were investigated to examine some of the factors that dreamtime effective management of school climate. This study employed a survey technique. The Chi-Square (X2) values of the variable were 68.7 and 46.4 respectively compared to the critical value of 7.84. Thus, the results were found to be statistically significant. Some of the findings were that a high proportion of school heads were not so much empowered for the challenges of school climate in the environment especially in the issue of finance. Therefore, on implication of this study is that financial provisions should be made to school heads to attend workshops and conference where there will be interactions with others

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of in-service training of teachers on academic performance of students in secondary schools in Edo State. Nigeria. The study was delimited to teachers of junior public secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District. Three (3) research questions were raised and answered. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. The population comprised two hundred and thirty (230) English Language and Mathematics teachers in public junior secondary schools. A sample of one hundred and thirty eight (138) teachers was used, representing 60% of the total population of the study. The checklist was used to gather data on in-service training of teachers and the students result scores was also used for analysis to determine academic performance level of students. From the analysis of data, the following were the findings: that secondary school teachers in Edo State are exposed to nine (9) different types of in-service training programmes and academic performance of students in secondary schools in Edo State is low. That frequency rate of providing in-service training programmes in secondary schools is low and only 32.22% of the teachers have attended in-service training programmes. Arising from the findings, it was recommended that government through the Ministry of Education should ensure that
in-service training programmes are regularly made available to secondary school teachers; that federal, state and local governments should make funds available to schools for teacher in-service training programme.

The school is a formal institution for teaching and learning. The goals of teaching and learning are achievable through effective planning and administration. The economic recession in Nigeria has immeasurably influenced the effective management of schools empowered by drastic reduction in education funding. This paper examined dwindling educational standards and quality. It concludes that enhancement of standard and quality are achievable through greater financial input into education especially in this 21st century in which many countries are fast developing through best educational practices.

This paper x-rayed the importance of environmental factors in every human endeavor especially as it relates to the teaching and learning environment in Edo state primary and secondary schools. It examined environmental factors to determine the outcome of teaching and learning at all times and in all places. Environmental factors consist of external factors that impinge on the learner including people, objects, perceptions, climate, aesthetics, noise, flood, building, interactions, socio-economic status, laws etc. This paper presents flood as a natural occurrence which often leads to disasters as a result of human-created vulnerability, which is a consequence of human-environment interactions. This paper concludes that the more enriched the learning environments is, the greater and more widespread are the benefits for academic performance and other student outcomes. It was therefore recommended that since the Nigerian learning environment is deplorable at some levels with particular reference to secondary schools; the educational institutions that are in flood ravaged communities be given serious attention as regards flood disaster and early management by government and other stakeholders in the educational System, so as to encourage sustainability and development.

The aim of this study was to promote Adaptability and Sustainability in office buildings. The office building is one of the great icons and edifice of the twentieth century. Office towers dominate the skylines of cities in every continent as the most tangible index of economic activity, portraying social, technological, and financial progress, they have come to symbolize the advancement of Architecture in every city. This is true because the office building is the most visible reflection of a profound change in employment patterns, but the most common problem in office buildings remains in its adaptability and sustainability, most especially in the tropical regions like Nigeria considering the inadequacy of electricity, therefore, the promotion of adaptability and sustainability in office buildings is of great importance which is the central aim of this research. The researcher’s primary source or method of data collection was based on descriptive method of data analysis to evaluate the draw backs of existing office buildings. Studies has shown that most office buildings are not adaptable and sustainable most especially in developing countries due to the inadequacy of electric power to run these buildings. The Research gap here is that the Natural elements of the environment has not been fully harnessed in maintaining ecological balance in office buildings. To accomplish this development, the building must benefit from an integrated design approach that focuses on meeting a list of objectives through a tropical design that offers owners and users an increased working satisfaction and productivity, improved health, greater flexibility, enhanced energy and environmental performance at little or no cost.

This research is to establish the level of compliance with the development standards and housing policy in Esan West Local Government of Edo State, Nigeria. Respondents are found to have complied with the minimum plot size of 30m x 15m though the majority contravened the prescribed maximum of 6 rooms per plot of 30m x 15m. Occupancy rates vary from one neighbourhood to another. Averagely we have three (3) persons per room as against the two (2) people per room by the code. The high occupancy rate identified is due to the influx of Staff and Students of Ambrose Alli University into the various neighbouhoods in search of accommodation.
The survey revealed that 9.5% of the houses uses water closet (w.c.) while 90.5% uses pit toilet latrines which contravened the standard; setbacks, area coverage, parking requirements, zoning, space standards are not adhered to. None compliance or contravention is traceable to high level of poverty among the residents; lack of awareness of the regulatory standards and poor policy implementation on the part of the regulatory agencies.
Recommendations on how to check this trend of contraventions include review of the Urban Development and Physical Planning regulations; improve on the enforcement by Town Planning officials and relevant agencies in the face of corruption that has bedeviled the country; urgently carrying out enlightenment campaign to raise the level of awareness of development control standards and that the government should give a legal backing to decisions of the Planning Authorities.

Housing is an essential need to man and its affordability is of a great concern to any prospective homeowner. However, there are a lot of constraints that are wrestling with housing affordability. This study focused on the assessments of those constraints to Housing Affordability in Benin City, Edo State. As a growing capital City, in a third World Country. Benin metropolis is experiencing acute housing affordability problem. The methodology used for the study involves both primary and secondary sources of information. These include: information from textbooks, journals, conference papers Newspaper and internet. Data was collected from questionnaire administered to respondents in the study area. From the data analysis and other information gathered, the findings showed that high rate of urbanisation, lack of finance, as a result of non access to mortgage loans, high cost of building materials and high level of unemployment, are mostly the constraints to housing affordability in Benin City. It is recommended that government should play a pivotal role by taken steps that will open up rural areas, such as the provision of good roads, electricity supply, good water supply, employment opportunities in order to stem the mass drift from rural areas to already over populated urban cities.

The aim of this study was to examine fire safety measures and their viability in buildings, the required measures are technology based. Buildings should be designed in such a way that occupants can escape by themselves in case of fire.  However, case-studies shows that occupants often are found incapable to escape in time and often times undermine precautional measures required to avoid or escape fire. The study methodology was based on incident evaluations and real-life experiments, such as unannounced evacuation drills. The possibilities of virtual reality for studying human behavior in fires are so far hardly adopted by researchers. Nevertheless, since in virtual environments test persons can be faced with the phenomenon of fire in a safe way, Data was also collected from books, magazines, journals and related articles, the application of a behavioral assessment and research tool in virtual reality is expected to be a valuable supplement on the existing research methods. In general little information is known about actual human behavior in an event of fire outbreak. Therefore, it is better to let the fire safety of buildings be based upon actual human behavior in fire. It is important to enlighten occupants on safety measures to be taken during fire outbreak in and around their buildings and other fire prevention methods to adopt for their safety. The study recommended suitable fire safety measures in accordance to best practices after due evaluation of existing fire safety measures as it applies to users and the effectiveness of these measures.

The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of Landscape Architecture on the built environment. Landscape is one of the important and fundamental issues which have been the center of attention recently. Landscape has had a unique position in discussions related to sustainable development in Architecture and urban planning so that landscape is regarded as one of the crucial elements in urban sustainable development. Landscape Architecture is the art and science of organizing land, spaces, and the elements on them to be used in an appropriate, healthy and pleasant way. The research method was based on descriptive method of data analysis to evaluate the impacts and significance of Landscaping to Architecture and the Environment. Studies has shown that landscaping has a direct effect on not only the building outfit but also the functionality, performance and aesthetics. Landscape Architecture over the years has not be given the deserved emphasis and considerations in design proposals and construction. Hence, the natural elements of the environment is not fully harnessed in maintaining ecological balance in built environments as proper landscaping offers owners and users an increased livability, improved health, greater flexibility, enhanced energy and environmental performance. Data was sourced primarily from books, internet and related literature. Landscape is more than a projection unto nature or the environment, it is a multivalent frame of territory, patterns, politics and aesthetics determining how the environment is perceived and shaped. The importance of this study goes beyond highlighting the benefits of Landscape Architecture in the built environment but also promote the awareness of sustainable Architecture and ecological balance of the built environment.

The study examines the effects of mortgage banks in housing development in Nigeria. Housing is one of the most essential basic amenity as well as one of the surest means for poverty alleviation, job creation, crime reduction and general National security. However, the will to progressively entrench this Fundamental Human Right is lacking in Nigeria with over 50 years of post-independence. Findings shows that the housing sector plays a vital role in the welfare of a country and her people as it has a directly proportional effect on the performance of every sector of the country’s economy. In addition to food and clothing, housing is a basic need to mankind and so, Nigeria has been greatly involved in the provision of adequate housing. It is therefore imperative to conceptually examine the effect of mortgage financing on housing development using Nigeria as a case study. The study was carried out by a review of literature and also by the analysis from primarily sourced data, data collected from journals of financial institutes and other related sources. These data collection instruments would enable this study identity and document the impact of mortgage banks in housing development in Nigeria as the importance of mortgage credit, commercial bank credit and investments from private sectors cannot be overemphasized in providing adequate housing for Nigerians. The paper finally concluded that the goal of commercial banks, mortgage banks and private investors is to make funds for property development accessible to prospective borrowers at cheaper rates, it was however recommended that Mortgage finance houses should be more aggressive and supportive in mobilizing fund for the housing sector.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of the architect in community development. Communal existence is possible only when certain individuals agree to live together in a geographical area with a sense of growth and development in creating a sustainable community. Architects on the other hand need to integrate sustainability as a major consideration for community development. The role of architects as professionals can be defined as a process to preserve, improve, and create the required quality of the built environment under the particular condition of each community. In the rural setting there is usually undefined precedence of development, therefore preparation for a sustainable built environment is often neglected; hence the architect has a role to play in rural community development. This paper therefore identify and consider ways in which architects can play their professional roles and thus act towards community sustainability. It suggests principles on which architects can base their actions in sustainable community development. Information were gathered from case studies, useful literature materials such as books, magazines, journals and the internet was also very instrumental and was consulted in the course of the study in descriptive method of analysis based research. An overview of the role of architects was employed related to realization of their roles and responsibility, personal self-improvement, professional and citizen actions for a sustainable community, and collaborative development. Although architects’ role in sustainable community development can vary with the particular situation, their actions as professionals and citizens always overlap. The paper finally concludes that in order to fortify the role of architects and policies for sustainable community development, there is a need for continual motivation, growth and development. It recommended that personal and joint efforts is required in order to collaborate with concerned authorities and agencies in the design, planning, and building of the rural communities for sustainable rural community.

The aim of the study was to examine rural and community development in Nigeria with emphasis housing policies, and strategies employed to bring about rural development in Nigeria. The study assess the impacts of institutions, agencies and efforts made by both domestic and foreign international organizations. The institutions, agencies and non-governmental organizations are programmed to bring about grassroots development. Therefore, clarification of terminology like development, rural community, and sustainability was conducted, this formed the philology basis of the analysis. Findings has shown that efforts made by the Nigerian government through several strategies like the nation’s development plans did not bring about desired development. However, international organizations strategies lead to little or no any meaningful improvement in the living conditions of the rural dwellers and rural infrastructure. It was also found out that a number of issues such as corruption, wickedness and mismanagement, sentimental planning from above rather than basic-productive approach; the quest for self-embellishment, greed and pursuance selfish interest has brought about failure of the rural developmental efforts. The researcher’s primary source or method of data collection was based on Analytic studies using descriptive method of data analysis to evaluate the draw backs of rural community development. The paper therefore concludes that for the desired development and growth to a realized and sustained, the government based development process must be reversed to rural-based and bottom-up approach, government must continue to create an environment that is conducive for rural development to thrive, the corruption mentality that has bedeviled government representatives and other stake holders must change in Nigeria in order to eliminate corruption and mismanagement of resources. Therefore, for the realization and sustenance of rural development these measures should be established and implemented.

This study was aimed at promoting the awareness of energy efficiency in buildings. It is of great importance that the energy efficacy in buildings is analyzed and calculated most especially at the design stage to ascertain and regulate the energy consumption of buildings. Building efficiency must be considered as improving the performance of the built environment designed to provide occupants with a comfortable, safe, and attractive living and work environment. This requires superior architecture and energy efficient design strategies, quality construction practices and intelligent operation of structures. Building performance is an integral part of any building design but most often this important aspect is neglected or skipped, thereby resulting to an inefficient building as it relates to building performance. Hence, this paper will do an assessment of buildings and their energy efficiency. The method of this assessment is descriptive order of analysis, it has been discovered that most buildings are not energy efficient therefore not sustainable. Sustainability in our present time cannot be overemphasized due to the rapid change of the environment and climate due to emissions and other environmental pollutions. This paper explains why it is very important for everyone to consider energy efficiency in buildings. As the demand for energy keeps rising which requires the generation of vast amounts of electricity, thus, changes have been made to make buildings more energy efficient and sustainable. Understanding the use of energy in buildings requires an insight into the amounts of energy consumed and the different type of fuels and their sources. Buildings that could help contribute to their energy demand through the generation of renewable energy would help reduce the amounts of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) being emitted into the atmosphere. Hence to succeed in developing a sustainable society buildings will always need to be improved as technology improves. The objective of this study is to obtain a clear understanding of energy efficiency in buildings outlining what would be the most feasible renewable technique to be adopted. There are many renewable technologies available at present, of which some have succeeded. Therefore the aim is to promote the awareness and construct a review of the most recent consultations on what are the current trends achieved towards making buildings more intelligent, self-sufficient and what could be done to make buildings more efficient. The performance of a building will directly impact on the resale and rental income of the building.

The aim of the study was to appraise the role of Town planning in Architectural Development in Nigeria. Towns and cities are the most evident manifestations of human activities on earth. Different civilizations have witnessed peculiar urban planning policies and designs that influenced their spatial arrangement to achieve the basic elements of urban planning. Today, these human activities have increased due to an increase in population, rapid urbanization, high private motor vehicle dependency, industrialization and mass livestock production, and have caused a whole lot of environmental, social, and economic challenges both at local and international levels. In such a situation, establishing a city through sustainable urban development activity, is seen as a potential tool to combat these challenges effectively and efficiently. It is therefore the role of the Architects and Urban planners to present technical and social skills, manifold interest, creativity, and high social competence. This paper offers a critical literature review on the issues relating to planning, development and management of sustainable cities using analytic appraisal method. It further recommends that to encourage the development of Architecture in a town, town-planners must aesthetically and functionally balance the design and building of towns, since Architectural development is dependent on town-planning. It therefore concluded that deliberate effort should be made to ensure that policies on sustainable cities are adhere to in the design and planning of towns. It is important that our built environment is adaptive to climatic factors and sustainable in relation to Architectural development to secure a sustainable urban future for all.

The paper is a modest attempt to examine the sources of environmental law with particular reference to Nigeria. Formal sources such as the common law of England, case law, international law, the constitution and other Nigerian statutes and laws form the fulcrum of the discourse. The paper explore how these bodies of laws contribute to environmental protection in Nigeria and the inter-relationship between them. The paper reveals that the English common law falls short of contemporary complexities and technical demands; Nigerian statutes and laws protecting the environment though numerous, are fraught with limitations and loopholes; whereas, case law and international law greatly enrich the corpus of rules protecting the environment.

This paper examines the overall potential benefits and the environmental costs associated with prospective shale oil and gas development in Nigeria using the hydraulic fracturing technology. The paper posits that due to depleting reserves of conventional oil and  gas, the quest for global energy security, the need for enhanced economic performance, and the growing demand for energy arising from population growth and increased Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for countries around the globe, shale oil and gas would play a greater role in the global  energy mix as a complimentary fossil energy source, at least, in the next decades to come, acting as a “bridge fuel” until  renewable are stable and sustainable. In the Nigerian context, shale oil and gas development would increase the nation’s oil and gas reserves, expand the national energy mix and provide overall economic benefits in state and the country as a whole as well as engendering the diversification policy embacked upon by the Nigerian government. The paper reveals that shale oil and gas development using the hydraulic fracturing technology is not environmentally benign. It poses adverse environmental impacts and novel risks that are different in some respect from conventional oil and gas development, especially in relation to excessive water use, and groundwater contamination.  The paper however founds that with proper regulation based on the principle of sustainable development of natural resources, shale oil and gas can be developed in an effective and environmentally responsible manner. The paper concludes by advocating the urgent need to develop and adopt a hybrid environmental regulatory model which integrates the traditional command and control approach with liability rules, risk- management and market based administrative approaches under the auspices of a pre-emptory, pro-active and participatory (3Ps) principle if  Nigeria’s quest to develop its shale hydrocarbon resource would outlive the state of being just a pipe dream to become a reality.

The paper explores the tripartite relationship between law, food security and national development with a view to proffering measures and strategies aimed at guaranteeing food security in Nigeria through the instrumentality of the law. The paper posits that the concept of 'food security' and 'national development' are inextricably linked for a holistic and integral development framework in any country, especially in a developing nation as Nigeria. The bane of the problem of food insecurity in Nigeria among other factors. include general lack of coherence, the issue of programme and policy continuity. corruption, poor commitment to implementation of agricultural policies, programmes and laws, focus on monolithic oil economy, fast growing population, climate change and other issues relating to institutional and sectoral policies. The paper concludes that through innovation, appropriate measures and pro-activeness on the part of government, Nigeria can achieve sustainable agriculture and food security that will ultimately guarantee and promote human capital and national development.

The proposed “Fourth Alteration” to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 has rekindled the controversy whether Presidential assent is a sine qua non conditio for constitutional amendment in Nigeria. Prominent legal scholars and foremost jurists in Nigeria are divergent on the issue. At the early stage of this controversy, Honourable Justice Okechukwu Okeke of the Federal High Court, Lagos had answered in the affirmative in the case of Olisa Agbakoba, SAN v. National Assembly & Anor. that the purported, 2010 amended constitution remains inchoate until it receives the President’s Assent. The National Assembly swiftly appealed Okeke’s judgement. More actions have since been filed by other litigants on the same issue. Most strikingly, the Nigerian Bar Association has officially also joined the debate, pitching tent with the bandwagon of proponents of President’s assent, without which constitutional amendments become ineffectual. This, it seems, is apt to mislead the generality of the Nigerian populace. This paper therefore takes a cursory look at the vexed issue vis-à-vis the extant provisions of the 1999 Constitution. The conclusion is drawn that there is no formal constitutional role for the President, in the amendment process. We however recommend, inter alia, that simplicity, clarity and precision should herald the proposed new amendment – provisions of the 1999 Constitution.

This paper examines the concepts of constitutionalism and democracy. It analyses the essential components of these twin concepts within the Nigerian context. The paper goes further to discuss the synergy between constitutionalism and democracy and links it to developmental issues in Nigeria. The paper contends that without the entrenchment of constitutionalism and the concomitant components of the supremacy of the constitution, separation of powers and the rule of law, the consolidation of Nigeria’s democracy and realization of national development will be elusive. The synergy between constitutionalism and democracy is a sine qua non for development to prevail in Nigeria. The paper therefore recommend strict adherence to the tenets of constitution, amendment of some provisions of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999, establishment of a viable and independent judiciary, a functional legislature, anti-corruption reform, re-invigoration of civic education and an improvement in leadership quality as panacea for national development.

Apart from the board of directors, the members in general meeting Constitute the other primary organ of the company. They take decisions in general meetings by way of resolutions. Such general meetings provide a formal opportunity for the members to appraise how the business of the company and the management should be carried on. Some issues arising from the role of the members in company affairs are: Who qualifies as a member of a company? How can membership be acquired? What are the rights guaranteed or conferred on a member? What liabilities arise from being a member of a company? This paper seeks answers to these issues. To achieve that objective, the writer attempts a comparative analysis of the relevant provisions of the Companies and Allied Matters Act, 1990 and the relevant provisions of the extant company law in England.

The paper examines how information resources and information centres including the use of library, e-library, telecommunication facilities and the internet can act as an indispensable tool of action in strategically forestalling insecurity in Nigeria. The major effects of insecurity (terrorism, insurgency, military) and the employable tactics to overcome it in Nigeria are discussed. The writers advocate the expedient use of information resources and information centres as tools for quelling the spate of insecurity pervading the Nigerian state. The significance of law in ensuring the protection of information infrastructure, and in particular, the relevance of the newly enacted Cybercrime (Prohibition, Prevention, etc) Act, 2015 is also examined. The writers conclude that using information resources and information centres to forestall insecurity not only have a microcosmic value to the entrenchment of peaceful co-existence, but have a fundamental role in ensuring a holistic national development.

There is broad and longstanding societal consensus that there should be no criminal punishment without moral blameworthiness. It is therefore a cardinal principle of most, if not all, civilized legal systems that no one should be held criminally guilty unless he is to some extent at fault (otherwise referred to as “no liability without fault”). Liability is expressed in terms of blame and harm calculation. The mere commission of a criminal act is not enough to constitute a crime. The theory of the law is that a criminal intent is a necessary ingredient in every indictable offence expressed in the maxim “actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea”. Thus, traditional criminal law recognizes that for a man to be held criminally liable there must be shown the existence of a concurrent of the physical element and mental element of a crime. Nevertheless, beginning from the middle of the nineteenth century, a new dimension to the basic principles of criminal responsibility emerged making it possible for a distinct group of offences to be punishable without regard to any mental element or recourse to the fault finding process. This paper seeks to highlight the problems inherent in the continued application of the concept of strict liability as a basis for criminal responsibility and to proffer alternatives to ameliorate the unjust trend. In order to achieve that objective, the author attempts a historical account of the evolution of strict liability offences, and an elucidation of the meaning, nature and context of strict liability offences. There is a discussion of the phenomenon in some other criminal jurisdictions and under the Nigerian criminal law. The argument justifying strict liability is juxtaposed with the argument against it. The curtain is drawn with a discussion on alternatives to strict liability.

ABSTRACT

A twelve-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Cassava Peel Meal(CPM) on the organoleptic properties of ham of (24) crossbred weaner pigs allocated to four dietary treatments replicated three times in a Completely Randomised Design(CRD) with each replicates having two pigs. Treatment I had 0% CPM while 2, 3 and 4 had (CPM) of 25%, 50% and 75% respectively. The pigs were allowed free assess to feed and clean drinking water ad-libitum and routine management and medication were administered. The samples of the processed ham was scored on the 9-point Hedonic scale ranging from like, extremely like, dislike to extremely in order to test for the following: Appearance, flavor, juiciness, tenderness, fattiness and overall acceptability of the processed ham. Before the testing exercise, the members of the panel ate a piece of cracker biscuit and then rinsed their mouth with cold water provided in order to minimize flavor carry over after which they commented freely on each of the samples provided using a score form. The result of the organoleptic quality of the processed ham revealed that only fattiness score was significantly (P<0.05) different among the treatment diets with the highest value in treatment 4 and lowest in control. It was concluded therefore that sundried (CPM) can substitute maize in the diet of weaner pigs at 50% level of inclusion for better meat quality.

ABSTRACT

The experiment was carried out at the Livestock unit of the Teaching and Research Farm Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria to investigate Influence Of Drum Kiln Models On Meat Quality Evaluation Of Smoked Chicken Thighs. Four different Kiln models viz; perforated clay pot (T1), drum with upper lid cutoff (T2), drum with both lids sealed (T3) and semi-spherical drum (T4) were used for the experiment and each Kiln models was replicated four times, making a total of sixteen Kiln models. Five chicken thighs each were randomly selected and arranged to each of the Kiln models (T1, T2, T3 and T4) with three replicates each, thus making a total of eighty chickens thighs in a complete randomized design (CRD). Proximate composition and sensory evaluation were carried out and Data generated were subjected to a one-way Analysis of Variance and means were separated using the Duncan multiple range test. Result on the proximate parameters assayed revealed a significant (P<0.05) variation among the treatments with highest moisture in T2 (drum with both lid sealed) while crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and crude ash were highest in T4 (semi spherical drum kiln). However, Nitrogen Free Extract was highest in T2. For sensory evaluation, highest significant (P<0.05) value was only recorded in general acceptability while other parameters assayed were not significantly (P>0.05) influenced. From the overall result obtained from the study, it is therefore concluded that processing chicken meat with semi spherical drum kiln gave a better quality chicken meat product.

ABSTRACT
Experiment on the effects of cassava peel (CP) on soil physical properties, maize growth and yield was conducted at Teaching and Research Farm of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State. Five levels of CP; 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 t/ha were administered to cultivated maize Swan-1 variety in a randomized complete block design, replicated thrice. Results showed that CP increased maize leaf area at 3 weeks after planting (WAP) and plant height at 6 and 9 WAP significantly. The highest maize cob and grain weights of 20.24 t/ha and 6.75 t/ha were obtained from the application of CP at 25 t/ha. Cassava peels at 25 t/ha also resulted in significant moisture content 23.49% on mass basis; CP at 20 t/ha and 25 t/ha reduced soil bulk density significantly from 0.92 g/cm3 to 0.82 g/cm3 and 0.79 g/cm3 respectively. It however, had had no significant effects on soil particle density, moisture content on volume basis and porosity but they increased with rates of cassava peel applications. Cassava peel mulch as an organic manure increases soil organic matter, soil physical fertility that may increase crop growth and yield.

This study examined the impacts of oil derivation fund on the socio-economic development in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, 1999-2014. Data from both primary and secondary sources were used to achieve the objectives of the study. Three out of the nine oil producing states that constitute the Niger Delta region of Nigeria were purposively selected from which three local government areas each were sampled. Primary data were collected using questionnaire, in-depth interviews and direct observations, while secondary data was sourced from the monthly publications of the Federal Ministry of Finance on revenue allocation. Two sets of questionnaires totalling 330 (Type A 150 for civil servants; Type B 180 for members of the oil producing states) were administered on respondents out of which a total of 249 representing 75.5% were completed and returned. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The findings showed poor administration of oil derivation fund which has further escalated the agitations and conflicts in the region, which impinged negatively on the provisions of socio-economic development of the region