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Hybrid energy systems are widely utilised as they combine different sources of energy to augment for the shortcomings of each power source. Information regarding the operating performance of the system components plays an essential role in establishing the control strategy for the system. The optimum control allows for proper exchange of energy among system components, thereby enhancing the system’s performance at optimum cost. Optimisation models are required for the efficient design of the mix of energy resources. These models can enable efficient management and the distribution of power for reliably satisfying the energy demand. This study presents state-of-the-art assessment of optimisation models for hybrid power systems. As part of research efforts in solving the present energy related problems of developing countries, this study comprehensively reviews the current status and underlying principles of various optimisation modelling technologies. This paper recommends the use hybridised metaheuristic algorithms for establishing the optimal solutions of hybrid energy systems. Accurate mix of meta-heuristic algorithms can enable the developmental framework for ascertaining the true optimal solution of hybrid energy system in reasonable time.


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This paper describes the design and control strategy of a security door system based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. The objective was to provide efficient system monitoring facilities that can secure the entrance to a building. The design utilised a two-factor authentication mechanism as well as a microcontroller programmed in C++ to control the hardware system. An electromagnetic relay was designed to regulate the opening and closing of the door being moved by a synchronous motor. The multiplexers, which consist of integrated circuits, were used for the display of the status of the card user in the liquid crystal display while the alarm system notifies the public of an intruder. The results are presented and discussed.


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The main objective of this study is to identify/determine the techno-economic and environmental merits of the inclusion of wind power to diesel power system for electricity generation in Nigeria. The optimum size of the winddiesel micro-grid was determined by making energy-balance calculations using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software. Analysis was performed for a typical residential area, made up of a population of 15 households, using the long-term (22-years) average wind speed data sets collected from the Nigerian Meteorological agency for Maiduguri (latitude 12.0°N and longitude 13.33°E). Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the annual average wind speed based on the wind map and diesel price to determine the viability at other locations in Nigeria. Simulation results presented are discussed and compared with the conventional approach.


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The paper investigates the accessibility index of cellular mobile networks at Ekpoma. The objective was to determine the performance and quality of service of GSM networks providers in Ekpoma, Nigeria. The assessment was based on the ability of a mobile network to setup and hold calls for a duration of 140 seconds. A total of 34,112 calls, made up of 8,528 intra-networks and 25,584 inter-networks, were initiated at 41 test points for a period of one year (May 2014 to April 2015). The test points selected spread across Ekpoma to account for all possible climatic conditions. The results showed that when network signals were available, steady and within the international acceptable standard of received signal strength level greater than –93dBm, all cellular mobile network operators at Ekpoma offered a good quality of service with an accessibility index greater than 81%. Conversely, the performance of all networks during periods of poor or fluctuating signals and both is unsatisfactory.


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Lack of available diffuse solar radiation data in Nigeria and the variation of commonly used estimation methods with site meteorology called for the need to evaluate models and verify their suitability based on the local environmental conditions before application for the design and development of solar energy systems. This study assesses the performance of six models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation over Nigeria. The models considered utilize clearness index, cloud cover, relative sunshine duration or a combination of these parameters as input, for estimating diffuse solar radiations on a horizontal surface. The performance evaluation of estimation models used data sets for 37 cities with varying meteorology, which spread across the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria, for a period of 22-years. The applicability of considered methods of estimation was determined based on the coefficient of correlation, coefficient of determination, mean bias error, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute bias error (MABE) and relative percentage error (RPE). This study finds that the multivariable regression relationship, which uses clearness index and cloud cover as input parameters, performs best in the estimation of diffuse solar radiations on a horizontal surface for Nigeria. It gives the lowest range of error terms, with RMSE (0.0778–0.1981 MJ/m2), MABE (0.0663–0.1623 MJ/m2) and monthly RPE of ± 6%.


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This study presents the optimum size of a hybrid energy system for reliable operation of automated teller machines (ATMs). The aim is to identify a configuration among a set of power generation options that can reliably satisfy the electrical power consumption requirements of a remote load at the lowest energy cost, taking into consideration the availability and dynamic nature of energy sources. Three primary energy sources (solar, wind and diesel) are considered. The optimum design configuration is determined by making energy balance calculations based on HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable) software. Simulations are carried out for a one-year period, using long-term meteorological data and load profile of a typical ATM installation for Ekpoma, located (latitude 6.75oN, longitude 6.13oE) in the southern part of Nigeria. Simulation results show that the optimum design configurations consist of 5 kW wind turbine generator, 12 kW photovoltaic arrays and 81 kWh battery bank for study location. A more reliable and less expensive operations of ATMs would not only improve the quality of banking services, but will also reduce emissions of CO2 and other harmful gasses from ATM installation sites in Nigeria by approximately 95.7% thereby making the environment much more friendly and safe.


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