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This study presents the modelling and optimization of a Hybrid Energy System (HES) for GSM Base Transceiver Station (BTS) sites in emerging cities. The aim is to ensure reliable and cost-effective power supply, considering the availability, dynamism and viability of energy sources.

Theoretical approach is applied in the modelling, simulation and validation of the developed HES, which consists of the utility grid, wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) as primary energy sources incorporating a super-capacitor/battery storage and power conversion unit. The complexity in optimizing continuous variables of the HES informed the use of a hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Pattern Search (h-GAPS) technique. The optimization problem is treated as a single objective function by considering all objectives in terms of cost while constraining the HES to satisfy the load demand safely according to the reliability criteria defined by the energy management strategy. The h-GAPS based optimization model simulated for the peripheral node GSM BTS sites in Abuja, Benin City, Enugu, Ikeja, Maiduguri and Sokoto utilized long-term (22-years) meteorological data sets collected from the Nigerian Meteorological agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The performance index of various developed and existing energy systems is evaluated based on economy or Cost of Energy (COE), power system reliability, energy throughput, and emission reduction targets.

Simulation results showed that Sokoto is the most favourable site for utilizing the proposed HES. Abuja and Benin City are the least favourable locations for utilizing the grid-connected (Grid/PV/Wind) and the off-grid (PV/Wind) configurations respectively. The optimum size of grid-connected HES consisting of 2 kW wind turbine, 7.09 m2 PV array inclined at 150, 0.053 kWh super-capacitor and 10.8 kWh (48V, 225Ah) battery banks, and 1,484.60 kWh of energy drawn from the grid per annum enabled reliable (negligible power loss) and cost-effective energy supply in Sokoto. The off-grid configuration reduced the COE by 72.81% (N24.75 to N6.73 per kWh) but with larger PV array size (12.68 m2) and reliability of 99.02%. In comparison with current practice of using grid/diesel systems, the proposed off-grid configuration has the best performance index, with an average energy throughput of 0.076 kWh per naira, in Nigeria. A reliable and cost effective energy option will not only reduce the per-unit cost of mobile services in Nigeria, but also reduce the greenhouse gas emission level from GSM BTS sites by an average of 98.34% thereby making the environment much more friendly and safe. This research would be useful for mobile service providers, consultants, regulatory agencies, policy makers, and the society.


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ABSTRACT

Guaranteed solutions to the current transaction security challenges facing banking industries may not be possible on a large scale, if the solutions are not developed to prevent third party transaction in the used software. Thus, this research lends its voice in support of the move to develop a biometric platform for preventing third party transaction in the banking system. It is meant to use both human face and fingerprint in securing payment platform in the banking software. Hence, the study is motivated by the need to develop a payment platform that is self-secured and be able to prevent third party transaction. In carrying out this research, an in-dept analysis of the existing banking software (Finacle 10.8) used in United Bank for Africa (UBA) was carried out to ascertain its existing security features, also the existing up-to-date banking security models were reviewed in order to establish the gap filled by this research. The data for this research were collected through the use of Key Informant Interview Method (KIIM), site visit and system observation techniques. It was seen that the existing software does not prevent third party transaction and made the software to be secured for customer but not secure for people entrusted with the software (staff). Hence we proposed the used of human face and fingerprint to secure the payment platform in this software as against the use of account number. In designing the platform, the Unified Modeling language such as Use-Case, Class diagrams etc were used as the modeling tool. Similarly, the platform was developed using Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM) with Rapid Unified Process (RUP) model to manage the software processes. In examining the designed architecture, the Open Group Architectural Framework and the Design Science approach were used to evaluate the architecture/design and the control mechanism framework. During the implementation of the platform, Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 was used as the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 was used as the backend. Similarly, Visual C#.NET programming language was used to program the application control mechanism and ASP.NET was used to develop the application interfaces. The implementation of the software and the testing shows that the platform could secure the banking system using both human face and fingerprint biometric. This thereby makes the software to be able to prevent third party transaction. Similarly, this platform was subjected to load performance testing using Jmeter performance testing package in order to ascertain the system performance, that is, tail tolerance and scalability. The result captured from the use of the Jmeter was graphically presented using excel. The result shows that the tail tolerance of the platform build using our architecture is significantly better than its equivalent. Specifically, we established that our biometric platform is better than the current platform used in securing banking transaction and can prevent third party transaction.


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ABSTRACT

This research work focused on solving Linear Programming Problems with the objective of identifying and reducing the computational complexities or complications involved in solvling these problems.  In this work, we presented two algorithms; the Standard Simplex method and a newer solution algorithm called Push and Push algorithm. The Simplex method has been one of the oldest and the best methods for efficiently solving Linear Programming (LP) problems until recently. In this work, a manual and computerized comparison for the Simplex algorithm and the Push and Pull algorithm has been achieved. We presented an automated software for the Simplex and the Push and Pull algorithms for solving a wide range of Linear Programming problems, in which the computational comparison of the two methods was carried out. The software was developed using Visual Basic 6.0 on a Visual Studio .NET Framwork 3.5, and on a Windows Vista operating system. This research work was carried out using theoretical methodology. The software was designed using an algorithm called, Algorithm Implementation Modules. In the course of this work, we found out that for LP Problems with ≤ constraints (Maximization cases), the computational complexity slightly differed, though the Push and Pull method still exhibits less number of computations, while for LP Problems with ³ constraints (Minimization cases), the computational complexity greatly differed; with the Push and Pull method having much lesser number of computations. We therefore concluded that the Push and Pull method is a preferable alternative to the Simplex method in solving LP problems.


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Abstract

Quite a good number of Afro-centric scholars assert that there is the existence of drama in Africa before the intrusion of the colonialists. African drama is distinct from other forms of drama in the world because of its inseparable link with its cultural and traditional elements. The use of traditional elements generally in African literature and, specifically, African drama, by writers cannot be over-emphasized. This work investigated the use of traditional elements in modern African drama through some selected Wole Soyinka’s and Zulu Sofola’s plays. This project which uses the exploratory research and textual analysis method is anchored on the ethno-dramatic indigenous theory of drama analysis. The analysis, however, reveals that there is the ample and adept use of traditional elements by both playwrights. The depth and style of such usage of these traditional elements differ considerably from Soyinka to Sofola in certain given texts. Although, there is the fusion of both traditional and literary drama in the works of both playwrights, there appears to be localization of western influences as a result of the inevitable cultural contact. Drama in Africa is culturally challenged to creatively exploit and explore the abundantly rich cultural and traditional contents and elements so as to re-mould its socio-political setting and situation in the face of a sub-merging world called a global village. African drama deserves to be evaluated within the confines of Afro-centric theories which have to be developed and used religiously by scholars.


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ABSTRACT

This study centers on conjunctions in French and in Esan. The objectives of the study are to find out similarities and differences that exist between this word class in the two languages, to identify the areas that could pose problems to the Esan learner to whom French is a foreign language.  Conjunction, being one of the parts of speech, was presented within the concept of traditional grammar (a grammar that is characterized by general rules with a list of exceptions). This study will enhance the documentation of Esan (a language spoken in the South-south of Nigeria) and contribute to the learning of French Nigeria.


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Abstract

La traduction peut être définie comme la transformation, la ré-expression, la reformation et l'interprétation des messages, des idées ou du langage source vers une langue cible, avec le but ultime d'un effet équivalent. En d'autres termes, il pourrait être considéré comme la communication de la signification d'un texte en langue source au moyen d'un texte en langue cible équivalente. L'objectif de ce travail est une traduction complète en français d'un livre intitulé: Born to be Great par IYOHA, Cyril Ikponmwosa. (2005) traduit en français sous le titre Né pour la grandeur. Cette recherche se penche sur certaines définitions de la traduction telles que présentées par certains experts dans le domaine. En outre, certaines des théories et procédures utilisées dans nos traductions sont discutées. Les problèmes rencontrés au cours de la traduction sont également discutés. En guise de recommandation, nous appelons les institutions d'apprentissage, ainsi que le gouvernement à encourager la traduction en langue française, les livres de littérature écrits et publiés en langue anglaise. Enfin, les enseignants de langue française sont encouragés à utiliser des livres traduits en français comme livres de littérature dans les écoles. L'utilisation de ce livre traduit en français par des lecteurs du monde francophone permettrait de partager l'expérience du peuple Iseyin en terre yoruba. De plus, les chercheurs de traducteurs pourraient également tirer profit des théories et des méthodes utilisées pour la traduction. On espère également que notre version traduite aidera à projeter l'auteur, Iyoha Cyril Ikponmwosa et ses travaux littéraires sur le monde extérieur notamment les territoires francophones.


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Abstract

The study empirically analyzed the effects of micro credit on cassava production in Edo state and compared micro credit beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. It focused on the examination of socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, the volume of loan requested, amount granted and amount repaid, the profitability of the enterprise by the two groups of farmers, the determinants of their profit, examination of resources use efficiency and the constraints affecting the farmers. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting one hundred and eleven (111) micro credit beneficiaries and one hundred and seven (107) non-beneficiaries. Data were collected through the administration of structured questionnaire for the literate respondents and an interview schedule for the illiterate respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgeting analysis, inferential statistics, using production function analysis, marginal value productivity analysis and a three (3) point Likert scale for the constraints rating. The results showed that farming operations were dominated by the males (91.9%) for beneficiaries and (83.2%) for the non-beneficiaries and they were literate farmers. Majority of them had no extension services (80.2% of beneficiaries and 95.3% non-beneficiaries). They cultivated small size farm holdings ( for the beneficiaries and ( for the non-beneficiaries. Only two socio- economic characteristics (family size and farm size) had significant difference (P <0.05). Cooperatives were the major source of credit (60%) for the beneficiaries. There was great disparity between the amount requested and the amount granted, the difference was significant (t =P< 0.05). The business was more profitable for the beneficiaries than the non-beneficiaries and the difference in the profit was significant (t=P<0.05). The Cobb-Douglass production function provided the best-fit equation. Five (5) of the variables were found to be significant determinants of the beneficiaries’ profit (P<0.05) while four (4) variable were the significant determinants of the non-beneficiaries’ profit (P <0.05). No resources were efficiently used in cassava production by the credit beneficiaries while one resource was efficiently used by the non-beneficiaries. The serious constraints affecting the beneficiaries were, transportation ( , land scarcity ( , late timing of granting loan ( , smallness of loan granted ( and high cost of labour ( . For the non-beneficiaries, serious problems were: lack of access to micro credit ( , transportation ( , land scarcity , and high cost of labour . In conclusion access to micro-credit could be of immense benefits to cassava farmer as it could enable them to expand their holdings, reduce cost of operation, achievement of higher returns and economies of large-scale production. It recommended for the formation of farmers’ cooperative society and more favourable access to credit facilities.


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